Skip to main content

Full text of "Cement and concrete reference book, 1956-1957."

See other formats


PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION 






Portland cement industry 



concrete — what it is 



porlland cement association 







cement and concrete in paving 



structural uses of concrete 



concrete for housing 



form uses of concrete 





concrete in conservation 



precast concrete products 



special uses of cement 



PORTLAND 

CEMENT 

ASSOCIATION 



33 West Grand Avenue 
Chicago 10, Illinois 



•* 




•* 



preface 



Tm: information in these pages has been assembled from authori- 
tative sources by the Portland Cement Association, a national organization whoa 
activitii are limited to scientific research, the development of new or improved 

products and methods, technii sJ ser\ ice, promotion and educational effort I includ- 
ing safetj work), and are primaril) designed to improve and extend the uses of 
portla ement and « terete. The manifold program of the Association and it 
varied es to i lent us« rs are made possible l»\ the financial support of mor 

than 70 mem r companies in the I nited Stale- and Canada, engaged in tb 
manufacture and sal of a vet) large j>roportion of all portland cement u*ed in 

thi two < intries. 

Additional information <m portland < ■ merit and concrete and their uses ma\ 

ured at the (.eneral Ollne of the Portland Cement Usociatios or from an) 

,,f its district offices lifted he low. A list of member companies may he found 

■n p <- J 1 2. 



Portland Cement Association 



33 West Grand Avenue, Chicago 10 



■ 



District Offices 



Atlanta, Go. 
Austin, Texas 
Baltimore, Md. 
Bir m ingham, Ala. 
Boston. Moss. 
Chi cog o, IN. 
Columbus, Ohio 



Dot Moines, Iowa 
Helena, Mont. 
Indianapolis, Ind 
Kansas City, Mo 
Lansing, Mich. 
loe Angeles, Calif 
Louisville, Ky. 
Memphis, Tenn. 



Milwaukee, Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
New Orleans, La, 
New York, NY 
Oklahoma City, Oklo 
Omaha, Neb. 
Orlando, Flo. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Portland, Maine 
Richmond, Va. 
Salt Lake City, Utah 
Seattle, Wash. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Trenton, N.J. 
Vancouver, B.C., Canada 
Washington, DC. 



Co 



> I' 



f .< tiif-rn !« 




h 





th 






this book 



The Cement and Concrete Reference Book is a compilation 

of interesting facts about the history, manufacture and uses of portland cement 
and concrete, Portland cement has a great variety of uses— more than any other 
structural material in the construction field— and contributes in many ways to 
the health, safety and welfare of every citizen. 

Because cement and concrete are so widely used and touch the public interest 
at so many points, this reference guide can be as useful to the small town weekly 
as to the large-circulation general magazine. In addition to factual material on 
specific topics, the Reference Book contains a great deal of general information on 
cement and concrete that is readily adaptable to local news events or special 

feature articles. 

General topics covered are listed by title of article in the Table of Contents. 
At the beginning of Part A (which includes information on the work of the 
Portland Cement Association, the history and manufacture of portland cement, 
and the making of concrete) and again at the beginning of Part B I which covers 
the uses of cement and concrete), articles contained in each section are briefed in 
a few sentences for ready reference. Tables and charts are also listed in the Table 

of Contents. 

Photographs and drawings in this book— along with thousands of otbers on tire 
general subject of portland cement and concrete— are available for free use of 
editors and writers in the United States and Canada. Additional information 
may also be obtained by writing the Portland Cement Association, 33 West Grand 
Ave., Chicago 10, 111. 



■* 



table of contents 






part a. portland cement industry, concrete and pea 

Briefed for Editors 6 



1. portland cement industry 



8 



Early History and Development of Portland Cement 8 

History and Development of Portland Cement in the United States 10 

Portland Cement Industry in Canada 15 

Manufacture of Portland Cement 1 - 

tables and charts 

Growth of the Cement Industry in the United Slates 11 

The Portland Cement Industry in 

Continental United States, 1870-19"* 12 

Use of Portland Cement by States, 1955 14 

Production of Portland Cement in Canada, 1900-1955 15 

Materials I sed in Portland Cement Manufacture 19 

Fuels Consumed by the Portland Cement Industry 19 

\\ brld Cement Production, 1953 20 

Isometric Flow Chart of the Manufacture of Portland Cement 56 



2. concrete 



21 



What It I^ and How It Is Made 21 

Air-Entrained Concrete 24 



3. portland cement association 



26 



What It Is and What It Does 26 

Cement and Concrete Research 28 

Educational Program 32 

Safety Record of the Cement Industry 34 

tables and charts 

PCA District Offices 2 

Accident Prevention Progress in the Cement Industry 35 

PCA Member Companies 112 

Map of Member-Company Mills and PCA District Offices 

inside bark rover 



part b. uses of portland cement and concrete 

Briefed for Editors , ...... 36 



39 



1 . cement and concrete in paving . . . . 

The Highway Job Ahead 39 

Early Concrete Pavements. 46 

Highway Research . 48 

Freeways . 52 

Highway Financing 54 

Highway Safety . . , . ........ 59 

Soil-Cement 61 

Concrete for Airports. . . . 65 

tables and charts 

Concrete Pavement Awards in the United States, 1909-1955. .... 42 
Concrete Street Pavement Awards in 101 U.S. Cities, 

with Populations of More than 100,000. . . . . . 44 

Concrete Roads, Streets. Alleys and Airports, by States 47 

Average Surface Maintenance Costs— 28 State Primary 

Highway Systems . . , . , 50 

Federal Aid for Highways 55 

20-Year Growth of Soil-Cement Paving Awards, 1935-1955 . ..... 62 

Square Yards of Soil-Cement Paving, by States 64 

2. structural uses of concrete ... 68 

Reinforced Concrete 

Architectural Concrete 70 

Tilt-Up 73 

Prestressed Concrete 74 

Concrete Bridges 77 

Railway Uses of Concrete 80 

Concrete Shell Roofs 82 




3. concrete for housing . 

4. farm uses of concrete 



5. concrete in conservation 



6. precast concrete products 



84 



CO 

t JO 



93 



93 



Concrete Masonry . . , 98 

Concrete Pipe . . 101 

Precast Structural Members , , . 104 



7. special uses of cement 



106 



Portland Cement Grouting 106 

Oil- Well Cementing 109 

Asbestos-Cement Products 110 



Portland cement industry 



# 



Early History and Development of Portland Cement (page 8) . . . 

traces the development of cement from the first crude uses of cement mortar 
through the discovery of hydraulic mortars in ancient Rome, the patenting of 
portland cement in England in 1824. the establishment of England's first port- 
land cement plant and the expansion of the industry from Kent to Belgium and 
Germany during the latter part of the nineteenth century. European manufacturers 
of portland cement began exporting it to the United States late in the 1860's, and 
these exports reached nearly 3 million bbl. in 1895. 

History and Development 

of Portland Cement in the United States (page 10) . . . 
continues the slon of portland cement from its first production in the United 
State> in 1871 at the plant of David 0. Savior in Coplay, Pa. Other pioneers who 
had much to do with the earl\ development of the industry in the United States 
included such nineteenth century manufacturers as John K. Shinn at Wampum. 
Pa.: Thomas Millen and \\\> two sons at South Bend, lnd.; and Robert W. Lesley, 
at Egypt. I'a. Production of portland cement in the United States grew from 
42.1HH) bbl. in 11580 to 335,500 bbl. in 1890 and nearly 10 million bbl. at the turn 
of the century. Since that time, the cement industry in this country has grown 
sleadiK until todav U.S. plants manufacture more than two and one-half times as 
much portland cement as those of any other country in the world. 



« « * 



Portland Cement Industry in Canada (page 15 1 

tells briefl\ the histon and development of portland cement in Canada from its 
earl\ pioneering days. Natural cement was first produced in Canada between 
1830 and 1840 b\ Ruggles Wright at Hull. Que., which was also the home of the 
fir-t Canadian-produced portland cement. Production of portland cement in the 
Dominion increased from 102.216 bbl. in 1890 to 3% million bbl. in 1905 and 
more than 25 million bbl. in 1956. 

Manufacture of Portland Cement (page 17 1 ... 

describes llie manufacturing process from the first quarrying operation through 
the final sacking and shipment of the finished product. Portland cement is manu- 
factured under exacting laboratory controls and must go through some 80 sepa- 
rate operations to complete the cycle from raw materials to a powder so fine it 
will pass through a sieve capable of holding water. 

Concrete, What It Is and How It Is Made (page 21 l ... 

tells how portland cement, water, sand and coarse aggregate can be combine 
to produce concrete suited to the particular job for which it is intended. Concrete, 
< urrectK proportioned and properh mixed, will achieve the essentials of dura- 
bility, ^trrngth and economy. 



part 






nd pc 




Air-Entrained Concrete (page 24) ... 

is probably the most important development of concrete research in a generation. 
Air-entrained concrete is produced through the use of air-entraining portland 
cement— or by the introduction of air-entraining agents under careful engineering 
supervision as the concrete is mixed on the job. This article tells what air-entrained 
concrete is, describes its many applications, and explains why it is highly resistant 
to severe frost action and prevents surface scaling where chemicals are used to 
melt pavement ice. 

Portland Cement Association, What It Is and What It Does (page 26) ... 

outlines the organization and objectives of the Portland Cement Association. 
Established with its main offices in Chicago since 1916, the Association is a 
national organization to improve and extend the uses of portland cement and 
concrete. This article describes ho\v the Association's objectives are accomplished 
through the coordinated efforts of its large Research and Development Labora- 
tories near Chicago, its various promotion bureaus in the General Office in 
Chicago, and its staff of more than 350 field engineers, architects and farm con- 
struction specialists working out of 32 district offices and serving cement users 
in 46 states, the District of Columbia and British Columbia. 



Cement and Concrete Research (page 28 1 . . . 

tells how the constant scientific research carried on— both in the laboratory and 
the field— by the Portland Cement Association and its members in the United 
States and Canada has multiplied the uses of portland cement and concrete, 
increased its durability and lengthened the service life of countless concrete 
structures that every day contribute to the national welfare. 

Educational Program (page 32) . . . 

describes the Portland Cement Association's wide range of informative literature 
and motion pictures, its educational advertising, and its participation in public 
lectures, demonstrations, technical clinics and personal field consultations. All of 
these activities contribute to an educational program designed to shorten the lag 
between research findings and practical application of technical advances in the 
uses of portland cement and concrete. 

Safety Record of the Cement Industry (page 34) ... 

explains the safety program of the members of the Portland Cement Association, 
who have made an enviable record in the face of hazards involved in quarrying, 
mining and blasting, and in the use of high-voltage electric current and of some 
of the world's largest moving machinery. In 30 years Portland Cement Associa- 
tion member-company plants have operated the equivalent of 1,092 accident-free 
years, a safety record believed to be unequaled. 



BRIEFED FOR EDITORS 



* 



early history and 
development of portland cement 



Joseph 
Aspdin 
Patent 



Ever since man first started to build, he has sought a material 
that would bind stones into a solid, formed mass. The Assyrians and Babylonians 
used clay for this purpose, and the Egyptians advanced to the discovery of lime 
and gypsum mortar as a binding agent for building such structures as the Pyra- 
mids. The Greeks made further improvements, and finally the Romans developed 
a cement that produced structures of remarkable durability. 

Most of the foundations of buildings in the Forum in Rome were a form of 
concrete, placed to a depth of as much as 12 ft. The great Roman baths built 
about 27 B.C., the Colosseum, and the huge Basilica of Constantine are examples 
of earl\ Roman architecture in which cement mortar was used. 

The secret of Roman success in making cement was in mixing slaked lime 
with a volcanic ash from Mount \esuvius, called pozzolana. which produced a 
cement capable of hardening under water. 

During the Middle Ages this art was lost, and it was not until the scientific 
spirit of inquiry revived in the eighteenth century that men rediscovered the 
secret of cement that would harden under water— known as hydraulic cement. 

Repeated structural failure of the Edd\ stone lighthouse off the coast of Corn- 
wall. England, led a British engineer named John Smeaton to conduct experi- 
ments with mortars in both fresh and salt water. These tests led to his discovery 
in 1756 that lime made from limestone containing a considerable proportion of 
clay would harden under water. Making use of this discovery, he rebuilt the 
Eddystone lighthouse in 1759: his structure stood for 126 years before replace- 
ment was necessary. 

Other men experimenting in the field of cement during the period from 1756 
to 1830 were L. J. Vicat and Lesage in France and Joseph Parker and James Frost 
in England. 

In 1824 a bricklayer and mason in Leeds. England, named Joseph Aspdin took 
out a patent on a hydraulic cement, which he called "portland" cement because 
it resembled in color the stone quarried on the Isle of Portland off the British 
coast. Aspdin's greatest contribution was his method of carefully proportioning 
limestone and clay, pulverizing them and burning the mixture into clinker, which 
was then ground into finished cement. Portland cement— the product patented by 



8 



Section 1 - PORTLAND CEMENT INDUSTRY 



Aspdin— is a predetermined and carefully proportioned chemical combination of 
lime, silica, iron oxide and alumina. Before portland cement was discovered and 
for some years after its discovery, large quantities of natural cement were used. 
Natural cement was produced by burning a naturally occurring mixture of lime 
and clay. Because the ingredients of natural cement were mixed by Nature, its 
properties varied as widely as the natural resources from which it was made. 
Thus natural cement gave way to portland cement, which is a predictable, known 
product of consistently high quality. Today, about 98 per cent of the cement pro- 
duced in the United States is portland cement. 

In Aspdin's day, however, this new product caught on slowly, Aspdin estab- 
lished a plant in Wakefield to manufacture portland cement, some of which was 
used in 1828 in the construction of the Thames River Tunnel. But it was almost 
20 years later— when J. D. White and Sons set up a factory in Kent which 
prospered— that the portland cement industry saw its greatest period of early ex- 
pansion, not only in England but also in Belgium and Germany. Portland cement 
was used for the construction of the London sewer system built in 1859—1867. 

The first record of portland cement's being shipped to the United States was 
in 1868, when European manufacturers began using cement as ballast in tramp 
steamers, which enabled them to ship it at very low freight rates. The volume in- 
creased to a peak of nearly 3 million bbl. in 1895. After that date, Americans 
began producing increasing amounts of portland cement for themselves. 



Leff — The original patent on portland cement, shown here in a photographic reproduction, was granted 
in 1824 to Joseph Aspdin of Leeds, England, by King George IV. Righf — Artist's conception of Joseph 
Aspdin depicts the father of portland cement in his workshop laboratory mixing powdered limestone 
and clay for burning in his home kiln. 



^% 



m 




K 









$ 



HUlliDi}r;H >: ^mu'Ot'C>\>b 
















- ■ • ■ - 



U~r 



1 



H 



/ 



I 



(*• 



\ 



Wf*" 



•* 



of 




history and development 
rtland cement 



in th 










CONSTRUCTION of a s\ stern of canals In the early nineteenth 
entun created the first large-scale demand for cement in this country. In I0I8. a 

j ear after the Erie Canal was started, an engineer named Canvass White discovered 
ock deposits in Madison Count \. N.Y.. from which natural hydraulic cement 
(•uld l>e mad. with little additional processing. He sold large amounts of this 

< nil fol use in the Erie Canal. Other deposits were found, principal!) in the 

Losendale district of New York, the Louisville district of Indiana and Kentucky, 

>id the I.- high Valle\ of Pennsylvania. i)\ 1899. nearh 10 million hhl. of natural 
nu ni was being produced aimuall) in the I nited Slates and Canada. 
Although portland cement had been gaining in popularity in Europe since 

] ii was not manufactured iii the I nited States until the 1870"s. Probably 

lir>t plant to start production was that of I)a\ id O. Savior at Cop lay, Pa. In 
L871 Saylor tried his band at selecting and mixing different kinds of rock from 
I, [iiarries to produce portland cement, \fter initial difficulties he succeeded. 

I at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. samples of Sa\lor'j 
product and thai made bj John K. Shinn at Wampum. Pa., compared favorably 
with the hr>[ imported Portland cements, 

While Saylor was perfecting hie product in Pennsylvania, a firm in South 
I L UldL— Thomas Milleil and [lis tWO BOII6 — WHS also experimenting with th 



Leff— roadside plaque was erected by the Pennsylvania Historical Society in the Lehigh Valley, a 

great cemenl-producing region and birthplace of the portland cement industry in the United States 
gM— The firsi portland cement produced in the United States was made in 1871 at the plant of 
David O. Saylor in Coplay, Pa These vertical kilns, constructed at the Saylor plant about 10 yeo 
oter, ore still standing. 




PORTLAND CEMENT 



This industry was born in 
the Lehigh Valley. David O. 
Saylor first made portland 
cement at Coplay in 1871. 
Here also was the first use 



till 



This region has continued 
to lead in the industry. 




s 





in the United States 



1880 '85 '90 '95 1900 '05 '10 '15 '20 '25 '30 '35 '40 '45 '50 '55 



manufacture of portland cement. Their first I'-rtlantt cement was burned in a 
piece of sewer pipe (perhaps the first experimental rotary kiln used in America), 
and the resulting clinker was ground in a coffee mill. 

A notable pioneer in the industry in America was Robert \\ Lesley. In 1871 
he founded the firm of Lesley & Ti inkle, cement brokers, dealing in both natural 
and portland cements. This led to his embarking in the manufacturing business 
for himself in Egypt, Pa. From his previous sales contacts, he picked up some 
ideas for time- and labor-saving devices for manufacturing portland cement, mosl 
notable of which was a method for pressing the pulverized raw materials into 
"eggettes" for burning in the kiln. 

In 1880, about 42,000 bbl. of portland cement was produced in the United States; Rotary 
a decade later the amount had increased to 335,500 bbl.; and since that time pro- Kilns 
duction has increased steadily until today the United States manufactures and 
uses more than two and one-half times as much portland cement as any other 

country in the world. 

One factor in this tremendous increase was the development of the rotar\ kiln. 
In the early days, vertical stationary kilns were used and allowed to cool aft. r 
each burning, with a resulting waste of fuel and time. In 1885 an English engi- 
neer, K Kaiismiip, patented a horizontal kiln, slightly tilted, which could be ro- 
tated so that the material moved gradually from one end to the other. Because this 
new type of kiln had much greater capacity and burned more thoroughly and 
uniformly, it rapidly displaced the older t\pe. Thomas Edison was a pioneer in 
the further development of the rotary kiln. In his Edison Portland Cement Works 
in 1902, he introduced the first long kilns used in the industry-ISO ft. in length 
in contrast to the customary 60 to 80 ft. Some kilns are 500 ft. and more in length. 
Parallel improvements in crushing and grinding equipment also influenced the 
rapid increase in production. I For annual production figure-, see pages 12 and 13, i 

II 



value of product 



i 



ear 



no. of 
active 

ants (a) 



£> 



production, 
bbl. 



1870-1879 
1880 . 
1890 . 
1895 . 
1900 . 



901 

1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 



1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 



1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 

1915 



1916 
1917 
1918 
1919 
1920 



1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 



1926 
1927 
1928 
1929 
1930 



1931 
1932 
1933 
1934 

1935 



(° All existing planls 
prior to and including 1905. 
b Value of product pro- 
duced through 1929, value 
of product shipped after 
1929 

■ 1870-1880. 
° 1900-1913 figures 
ore estimotes of cement used 
• Barrels of 376 lb. 

nee 1920, ond 380 lb. in 
eo flier yeors, 

' Imports in 1878 ond 
1879 only. 

'9 Exclusive of U.S. pos- 

jns. 
h Includes lime. 
' Population estimotes 
from Bureau of Census. 



1936 
1937 
1938 
1939 

1940 



1941 
1942 
1943 
1944 
1945 



1946 
1947 
1948 
1949 
1950 



1951 
1952 
1953 
1954 
1955 



16 
22 
50 



82,000 

42,000 

335,500 

990,324 

8,482,020 



56 
65 
78 
83 
89 



12,711,225 
17,230,644 

22,342,973 
26,505,881 
35,246,812 



84 

94 

98 

108 

111 



46,463,424 
48,785,390 
51,072,612 
64,991,431 
76,549,951 



116 
116 
113 
111 

109 



78,528,637 

82,438,096 

92,097,131 

88,230,170 

85,914,907 



113 
118 
115 
111 
117 



91,521,198 
92,814,202 
71,081,663 
80,777,935 
100,023,245 



115 
118 
126 
132 

138 



98,842,049 
114,789,984 
137,460,238 
149,358,109 
161,658,901 



140 
153 
156 
163 
163 



164,530,170 

173,206,513 
176,298,846 
170,646,036 
161,197,228 



160 
160 
152 
150 
150 



125,429,071 
76,740,945 
63,473,189 
77,747,765 
76,741,570 



149 
150 
151 
149 
151 



112,649,782 
116,174,708 
105,357,000 
121.934,911 
129,830,687 



154 

153 
151 
149 
142 



163,567,931 
182,114,486 
132,445,838 
89,883,262 
101,340,500 



totol< b 



$ 



150 

148 
148 
148 
148 



162,296,274 
184,644,179 
203,007,875 
207,535,473 
222,807,500 



153 

154 

154 
155 
155 



241,782,416 
245,167,955 
260,524,908 
267,675,000 
292,634,000 



246,000 

1 26,000 

704,050 

1,586,830 

9,280,525 



12,532,360 
20,864,078 
27,713,319 
23,355,119 
33,245,867 



52,466,186 
53,992,551 
43,547,679 
52,858,354 
68,205,800 



66,248,817 
67,016,928 
92,557,617 
81,789,368 
73,886,820 



100,947,881 
125,670,430 
113,730,661 
138,130,269 
202,046,955 



186,811,473 
202,030,372 
261,174,452 
270,338,177 
286,136,255 



281,346,591 
280,594,551 
276,789,188 
252,556,133 
228,779,756 



140,959,906 

82,021,723 

85,600,717 

116,921,084 

1 13,372,182 



170,415,302 
168,835,208 
153,977,226 
180,321,811 
189,448,192 



245,616,442 
281.720,953 
197,812,259 
148.132,093 
170,317,436 



288,451,136 
350,874,595 
438,731,046 
467,067,991 
527,021,937 



601,918,133 
627,994,334 
687,927,387 
727,500,000 
791,418,000 



averag 
net mi 
per bb 



$3.00' 
3.00 
2.09 
1.60 
1.09 

0.99 
1.21 
1.24 

0.68 
0.96 



1.13 
1.11 
0.85 
0.81 
0.89 



0.84 
0.81 
1.01 
093 
086 



1.10 
1.35 
1.60 
1.71 
2.02 



1.89 
1.76 
1.90 
1.81 
1.77 



1.71 
1.62 
1.57 

1.48 
1.44 



1.11 

1.01 
1 33 
1.54 
1.51 







shipments 


imports of 


exports of 


U.S. per 






lipments 


stocks on 


within 


hydraulic 


hydraulic 


capita 




from 


hand at end 


U.S., bbl. 


cement, bbl. 


cement, bbl. 


use, bbl. 




nils, bbl. 


off year, bbl. 


(d) 


(e) 


(g) 


(I) year 




___> ___. _ _ 


MM — - 


_______ _ _-. 


1 98,000< f > 


507,077< h > 


— . 1870-1879 




mm — — 


MM MM — 


— — 


1 87,000 


41,989< h > 


— . . 


. . 1880 




MM -— —M 


MM 





1,940,186 


86,963 (h) 


-— ■ 


. . 1890 




MM — — — 


— — 


. — 


2,997,395 


83,682 


— . . 


. . 1895 










10,728,764 


2,386,683 


1 00,400 


— . . 


. . 1900 




MM —_ mm 


______ _MM- ____ 


13,216,026 


939,330 


373,934 


— . . 


. 1901 




_ — __m 


— 


18,818,243 


1,963,023 


340,821 


— . . 


. . 1902 




__— _— — 


___ . 


24,309,479 


2,251,969 


285,463 


— . . 


. . 1903 




. 


_ _. ___ __ 


26,699,351 


968,409 


774,940 


— . . 


. . 1904 




— MM 


_____ 


35,245,971 


896,845 


897,686 


— . . 


. 1905 




— ___ ___ 


_____ -_____. — 


48,153,618 


2,273,493 


583,299 


— . . 


. . 1906 




_M_ MM MM 


— 


49,918,278 


2,033,438 


900,550 


— . . 


. . 1907 




— M MM MM 





51,068,505 


842,121 


846,528 


— . . 


. . 1908 




MM — MM 


__ — 


64,378,397 


443,888 


1,056,922 


— . . 


. . 1909 




_— 





74,380,857 


306,863 


2,475,957 


— . . 


. . 1910 




5,547,829 


10,385,789 


72,577,090 


164,670 


3,135,409 


— . . 


. . 1911 




15,012,556 


7,811,329 


80,865,527 


68,503 


4,215,532 


— . . 


. . 1912 




18,689,377 


11,220,328 


85,809,649 


85,470 


2,964,358 


— . . 


. 1913 




56,437,956 


12,773,463 


83,885,300 


120,906 


2,140,197 


0.84 . , 


, . . 1914 




16,891,681 


11,462,523 


84,230,966 


42,218 


2,565,031 


0.83 . . 


. . 1915 




>4,552,296 


8,360,552 


91,679,803 


1,836 


2,563,976 


0.89 . . 


. . 1916 




>0,703,474 


10,353,838 


87,765,565 


2,323 


2,586,215 


0.84 . . 


. . 1917 




'0,915,508 


10,451,044 


68,482,281 


305 


2,252,446 


0.64 . . 


, . . 1918 




J5,61 2,899 


5,256,900 


82,465,381 


8,931 


2,463,573 


0.77 . , 


, . . 1919 




>6,31 1,719 


8,833,067 


93,548,476 


524,604 


2,985,807 


0.87 . , 


. . 1920 




>5, 507, 147 


12,192,567 


94,286,002 


122,317 


1,181,014 


0.87 . 


. . . 1921 




17,701,216 


9,352,250 


116,306,997 


355,931 


1,127,845 


1.06 . . 


, . . 1922 




35,912,118 


10,812,639 


134,703,313 


1,767,264 


1,001,688 


1.21 . . 


. . . 1923 




*6,047,549 


14,151,695 


145,061,545 


2,023,663 


878,543 


1.29 . 


. . . 1924 




57,295,212 


18,336,173 


156,117,674 


3,667,548 


1,019,597 


1.38 . 


, . . 1925 




b2, 187,090 


20,740,187 


1 60,939,707 


3,244,223 


974,326 


1.37 . 


. . . 1926 




H,864,728 


22,457,382 


170,736,616 


2,065,730 


816,726 


1.44 . 


. . . 1927 




75,838,332 


22,760,103 


174,680,726 


2,302,475 


824,656 


1.46 . 


. . . 1928 




69,868,322 


23,700,533 


168,754,196 


1,745,345 


885,321 


1.41 . 


. . . 1929 




59,059,334 


25,898,622 


158,029,775 


984,807 


755,778 


1.29 . 


. . . 1930 




27,150,534 


24,342,446 


126,404,657 


469,598 


429,653 


1.02 . 


. . . 1931 




80,843,187 


20,351,058 


80,183,671 


468,139 


374,581 


0.64 . 


. . . 1932 




64,282,756 


19,605,323 


63,305,426 


477,193 


680,307 


0.50 . 


. . . 1933 




75,901,279 


21,440,594 


74,872,466 


265,997 


566,171 


0.59 . 


. . . 1934 




75,232,917 


23,064,563 


74,320,91 1 


6 1 9,404 


4 1 6,099 


0.58 . 


. . . 1935 




12,849,979 


22,568,685 


1 1 1 ,966,799 


1,658,902 


334,673 


0.87 . 


. . . 1936 




13,804,782 


24,913,245 


112,782,328 


1,803,932 


378,554 


0.87 . 


. . . 1937 




06,324,127 


23,992,939 


105,455,183 


1,727,411 


558,226 


0.81 . 


. . . 1938 




22,303,478 


23,644,333 


121,339,558 


1,913,853 


1,146,339 


0.95 . 


. . . 1939 




29,965,544 


23,361,825 


126,501,935 


538,060 


1,667,595 


0.96 . 


. . . 1940 




66,974,079 


19,964,616 


160,335,730 


43,466 


2,556,234 


1.25 . 


. . . 1941 




84,671,526 


17,342,630 


177,385,438 


644 


1,100,826 


1.38 . 


. . . 1942 




26,649,772 


23,155,469 


120,658,095 


13,658 


1,731,956 


0.95 . 


. . . 1943 




93,281,192 


19,886,797 


87,308,579 


169 


4,040,405 


0.70 . 


. . . 1944 




04,856,406 


16,421,666 


96,457,004 


323 


6,474,721 


0.77 . 


. . . 1945 




67,818,039 


10,918,287 


163,093,661 


3,734 


5,163,362 


1.16 . 


. 1946 




85,587,744 


9,989,096 


179,253,344 


4,606 


6,771,250 


1.25 . 


. . . 1947 




101,864,207 


11,071,246 


196,193,667 


282,752 


5,922,163 


1.34 . 


. . . 1948 




'03,908,839 


14,715,597 


200,248,023 


109,821 


4,561,899 


1.35 . 


. . , 1949 




.24,569,185 


13,045,067 


222,608,378 


1 ,490,974 


2,418,435 


1.47 . 


. . . 1950 




.36,855,689 


18,048,145 


235,047,389 


921,953 


2,932,787 


1.53 . 


. . . 1951 




.47,374,020 


15,822,149 


245,176,937 


475,986 


3,174,405 


1.56 . 


. . . 1952 




!57,237,400 


19,109,657 


255,263,471 


386,051 


2,535,549 


1.65 . 


, . . 1953 




_70,4 12,000 


16,606,467 


269,170,286 


_ 


— — — 


1.69 . 

m *•■ __ 


. . . 1954 

1 ™\ JT l~ 




288,579,000 


17,411,000 


287,191,000 


___ — 


_____ 


1.74 . 


. . . 1955 





13 



I • 



ft ft 



















rank 


per 










per 


in 


cent 


rank 






shipments 


capita 


per 


of 


in 






into states, 


use, 


capita 


total 


total 




state population 


bbl. 


bbl. 


use 


used 


used 




Alabama 3,006,000 


3,949,383 


1.31 


39 


1.37 


25 




Arizona . . . , 




955,000 


2,336,869 


2.45 


9 


0.81 


33 




Arkansas 




1 ,770,000 


2,519,045 


142 


37 


0.88 


30 




California . . 


i • 




, 1 2,696,000 


31,553,460 


249 


7 


10.99 


1 




Colorado . . . 


* * 




1,508,000 


3,485,587 


2.31 


11 


1.21 


27 




Connecticut . , 






2,233,000 


3,380,045 


1.51 


31 


1.18 


29 




Delaware . . . 








380,000 


1,096,849 


2.89 


2 


0.38 


42 




Dist, of Columbia 


9 






831,000 


1,395,480 


1.68 


27 


0.49 


38 




Florida .... 








3,364,000 


8,996,778 


2.67 


3 


3.13 


9 




Georgia . . • , 








3,539,000 


5,198,488 


1.47 


34 


1.81 


19 




Idaho 








606,000 


922,657 


1.52 


30 


0.32 


45 




Illinois .... 








9,297,000 


14,669,839 


1.58 


29 


5.11 


6 




Indiana .... 








4,325,000 


8,072,919 


1.87 


22 


2.81 


10 




Iowa # . . . « 








2,690,000 


5,883,005 


2.19 


14 


2.05 


15 




Kansas . . . , 








2,02 1 ,000 


7,248,402 


2.19 


15 


2.52 


13 




Kentucky . . , 








2,948,000 


3,636,286 


1.23 


40 


1.27 


26 




Louisiana . . , 








2,902,000 


7,346,885 


2.53 


6 


2.56 


12 




Maine 








890,000 


961,477 


1.08 


43 


0.33 


43 




Maryland , . , 








2,593,000 


4,881,766 


1.88 


21 


1.70 


21 




Massachusetts 








4,972,000 


5,238,608 


1.07 


44 


1.82 


18 




Michigan , . , 








7,222,000 


13,990,932 


1.94 


18 


4.87 


7 




Minnesota . . , 








3, 1 69,000 


5,837,734 


1.84 


23 


2.03 


16 




Mississippi . , , 








2,085,000 


1,972.200 


0.95 


48 


0.69 


36 




Missouri .... 








4,094,000 


7,824,142 


1.91 


20 


2.73 


11 




Montana . . , , 








628,000 


950,537 


1.51 


32 


0.33 


44 




Nebraska . . , 








1,369,000 


3,484,902 


2.55 


5 


1.21 


28 




Nevada .... 








2 1 6,000 


737,308 


3.41 


1 


0.26 


47 




New Hampshire 








553,000 


1,147,139 


2.07 


16 


0.40 


41 




New Jersey 








5,370,000 


9,337,446 


1.74 


26 


3.25 


8 




New Mexico . , 








769,000 


1,996,330 


2.60 


4 


0.70 


35 




New York . . , 








16,053,000 


19,399,403 


1.21 


41 


6.76 


3 




North Carolina . 








4,190,000 


4,413,729 


1.05 


45 


1.54 


24 




North Dakota . , 








64 1 ,000 


1,150,319 


1.79 


25 


0.40 


40 




Ohio 








8,946,000 


17,319,534 


1.94 


19 


6.03 


4 




Oklahoma , . , 








2,136,000 


4,785,127 


2.24 


13 


1.67 


23 




Oregon .... 








1 ,664,000 


2,397,990 


1.44 


35 


0.84 


32 




Pennsylvania 








11,132,000 


16,076,934 


144 


36 


5 60 


5 




Rhode Island . < 








814,000 


821,767 


1.01 


47 


0.29 


46 




South Carolina . 








2,226,000 


2,461,423 


1.11 


42 


0.86 


31 




South Dakota . , 








672,000 


1,221,036 


1.82 


24 


0.43 


39 




Tennessee . . , 








3,399,000 


5,088,161 


1.50 


33 


1.77 


20 




Texas . . 








8,351,000 


20,781,217 


249 


8 


7.23 


2 




Utah 








776,000 


1,835,225 


2.36 


10 


0.64 


37 




Vermont , . . , 








377,000 


293,809 


0.78 


49 


0.10 


49 




Virginia . , . , 








3,421,000 


4,801,246 


1 40 


38 


1.67 


22 




Washington , , 








2,497,000 


5,655,665 


2.26 


12 


1.97 


17 




West Virginia . , 








2,00 1 ,000 


2,053,494 


103 


46 


0.71 


34 




Wisconsin . . , 








3,691,000 


5,976,599 


1.62 


28 


2.08 


14 




Wyoming , . . 








295,000 


578,060 


1.96 


17 


0.20 


48 



totals 162,284,000 287,163,238 fc) 



1.80 



100.00 



a Current Population Reports, Bureau of Census, U.S. Deportment of Commerce, January 
20, 1956. 

b Mineral Industry Surveys, Monthly Cement Report, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Deportment of 
the interior, December 1955 

c Total does not include 28,290 bbl. shipped to unspecified destinations. Imported borrcl- 
oge is not included in shipment figures. 



•* 



Portland cement industry 
in Canada 



Natural cement was first produced in Canada between 1830 
and 1840 by Ruggles Wright, who used limestone from the banks of the Ottawa 
River in his plant at Hull, Que. The firm he founded later marketed the first 
Canadian-produced portland cement in 1889, when the demand for this product 
virtually supplanted the demand for natural cement. 

Another early Canadian cement manufacturer was Major-General Baddley, 
who made natural hydraulic cement from the black limestone of Quebec in 1856. 
Other early plants were located on the Gaspe Peninsula, in Argenteuil County, 
Que., and at Kingston and Thorold, Ont. 

About 1887 imported portland cement began to appear in considerable quan- 
tities in Canada, and because of its superiority gradually replaced the domestic 



i 



Dominion Bureau 
of Statistics 



year 



barrels 



year 



barrels 



TmrvH" 


1900 . . 


417,552 


1937 . . 


. 6,186,971 








Hfiiln 


1910 . . 


4,753,975 


1938 . . 


5,519,102 




nana 


1920 . . 


6,651,980 


1939 . . 


5,731,264 




m a ^ ^ 


1921 . . 


5,752,885 


1940 . . 


7,559,648 




1955 


1922 . . 


6,943,972 


1941 . . 


8,368,711 






1923 . . 


7,543,589 


1942 . . 


9,126,041 






1924 . . 


7,498,624 


1943 . . 


7,302,289 






1925 . . 


8,116,597 


1944 . . 


7,190,851 




* 


1926 . . 


8,707,021 


1945 . . 


8,471,679 






1927 . . 


. 10,065,865 


1946 . . 


11,560,483 






1928 . . 


. 11,023,928 


1947 . , 


, . 12,202,696 






1 1929 . . 


. 12,284,081 


1948 . , 


. . 14,003,656 






1930 . . 


. 11,032,538 


1949 . . 


. . 16,061,369 






1931 . . 


. 10,161,658 


1950 . , 


. . 16,741,826 






1932 . . 


4,498,721 


1951 . 


. . 17,007,812 




source: 


1933 . . 

1934 . 


3,007,432 
3,783,226 


1952 . 

1953 . 


. . 18,405,003 
. . 22,412,772 




Review, 


1935 . . 


3,648,086 


1954 . 


. . 22,622,021 




Bl1»A*« II 


1936 . . 


4,508,718 


1955 . 


. . 25,115,425 





Cement 
Products 
Industry 



natural cements. By 1889 consumption of portland cement in Canada had reached 
122.273 bbl.. all of it imported. 

In this year four plants— at Hull Napanee. Shallow Lake (near Owen Sound), 
and Longue Pointe (near Montreal)— did pioneer work in manufacturing portland 
cement. In 1890. 102.216 bbl. of domestic portland cement was produced. 

The >ears 1898 to 1905 saw a rapid expansion of portland cement plants in 
Canada. By the end of 1905. their producing capacity was 3 1 /*; million bbl. per 
\ear. with about 80 per cent of this capacity located in Ontario. About 1891 the 
Canadian Pacific Railway started large-scale replacement of wooden structures 
with concrete in the mountainous regions of western Canada. It employed a chem- 
ist to investigate mineral deposits in this area, with the result that a small cement 
plant was built near Vancouver. From this beginning, the industry expanded in 
British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba. 

Since the turn of the century, portland cement has plaved a large part in the 

growth of Canada. 

Today. Canada's twelve cement plants are situated in seven provinces— three in 
Ontario, four in Quebec, and one each in Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia, 
Newfoundland and New Brunswick. 

The 25.115,425 bbl. of cement shipped from these plants in 1955 represented 
an almost 30O per cent increase over shipments 10 years earlier. Rate of use of 
portland cement in the Dominion in 1955 was 1.61 bbl. per person. 

Along with the growth of the Canadian portland cement industry, there has been 
a < omparable expansion of the concrete products industry in Canada. During the 
fi\ e-year period 1951—1955, Canadian concrete products manufacturers increased 
their annual output of concrete brick from more than 62 million units to more 
than 153 million, and their concrete block production from about 98 million 
units to more than 106 million. Canadian producers also turned out 510,000 tons 
of concrete pipe and tile in 1955. 



A modern cement plant contains some of the largest pieces of moving machinery used in any industry. 
Modern rotary cement kilns ore, in many instances, longer than a football field. 




•K 



manufacture off 

Portland cement 



Joseph Aspdin, bricklayer of Leeds, England, who first made 
portland cement early in the nineteenth century by burning powdered limestone 
and clay in his kitchen stove, probably never considered his experiments in the 
light of putting a mountain through a sieve. But he laid the foundation for the 
portland cement industry of today, which even war processes literally moun- 
tains of limestone, clay, cement rock and other raw materials into a powder so 
fine it will pass through a sieve capable of holding water. 

Portland cement, the basic ingredient of concrete, is a closely controlled chem- 
ical combination of lime, silica, alumina, iron oxide and small amounts of other 
ingredients— to which gypsum is added in the final grinding process to regul tte 
the setting time of the concrete. Lime and silica make up approximate!) J!5 per 
cent of the mass. Common among the materials used in its manufacture are lime- 
stone, shells and chalk or marl, combined with shale. cla\. slate or blast-furnace 
slag, silica sand and iron ore. 

The exacting nature of portland cement manufacture (see page 56) requires 
some 80 separate and continuous operations, the use of a great deal of heav\ ma- 
chinery and equipment, and large amounts of heat and electrical energy. Conse- 
quently, the capital investment per worker in the cement industry is among the 

highest in all industries. 

Each step in the manufacture of portland cement is checked b\ frequent chem- 
ical and physical tests in plant laboratories. The finished product is also anal\/<d 
and tested to insure that it complies with the exacting applicable specifications 
of the American Society for Testing Materials, the Federal Specifications Execu- 
tive Committee or other specif) ing agencies. 

Two different processes are used in the manufacture of portland cement. One is Two 

the dr\ process; the other, the wet. Processes 

When rock is used as the principal raw material, the first ^tep in both pr<»« - 
esses after quarrying is the primary crushing. Mountains of rock are fed through 
crushers capable of handling pieces as large as an oil drum. The first crashing 
reduces the rock to a top size of about 6 in. The rock then goes to secondar\ 
crushers or hammer mills for reduction to approximate!) 2-in. size or smaller. 

In the wet process, the raw materials, properly proportioned, are then ground 
With water, intimately mixed and fed into the kiln in the form of a "slurry" (con- 
taining enough water to make it of a fluid consistency). In the dry process, raw 

17 



Used 



materials are ground, mixed and fed to the kiln in a dry state. Otherwise, the 
two processes are essentially alike. 

New The raw material is then raised to a temperature of approximately 2,700 deg. E 
Product i n hu»e cylindrical steel rotary kilns lined with special firebrick. Kilns are fre- 
Formed q Uent iy as mU ch as 12 ft. in diameter— large enough to accommodate an automo- 

bile and longer in many instances than the height of a 40-story building. Kiln- 
are mounted with the axis inclined slightly from the horizontal. The finely ground 
raw material or the slurry is fed into the higher end. At the lower end is a roaring 
blast of flame, produced by precisely controlled burning of powdered coal, oil or 

gas under forced draft. 

\s the material moves through the kiln, certain combinations of elements are 
driven off in the form of gases. The remaining elements unite to form a new sub- 
stance v\ith its own physical and chemical characteristics. The new substance, 
called "clinker." is formed in pieces about the size of marbles. 

Clinker is discharged red-hot from the lower end of the kiln and is generalh 
brought down to handling temperature in \arious t\pes of coolers. The heated 
air fr i the coolers is returned to the kilns, a process that saves fuel and increases 
burning efficiency. 

Final Tht i linker ma\ be stockpiled for future use. or it may be convex ed immediateh 
Grinding to a series of grinding machines. Here g\psum is added and the cycle from '"moun- 
Completes ta j n t0 s j ex ,." j s completed. The final grinding operation reduces the clinker to a 



Cycle 



po\wler called portland cement, a powder so fineh ground that more than 90 per 
nt of it will pass through a screen containing 40.000 openings to the square 
inch; more than 80 per cent will pass through a screen that has 100,000 openings 
to the square inch. 

Strong paper sa« k^. which are sealed before receiving the cement, are then 
tilled through a -mall opening or "valve" from a packing machine that automati- 
« ill\ euts off the flow of cement when { ) 1 lb. has entered the sack. \\ hen cement i> 
shipped in hulk, it is pumped into hopper-bottom railroad cars, trucks, barges or 
ships and is accurate!) weighed. 

Production and shipment figures on portland cement (see pages 12 and 13 
are compiled b\ the I .S. Bureau of Mines, which uses barrel? containing cement 
weighing 376 lb. net a^ units of measure, even though it has been many years 
since am American cement, except for export, was shipped in barrels. The 94-11 
bag m.w in general use contains one-fourth of a "barrel* - or 1 eu.ft. 




Cement "clinker/' burned in o kiln at 
temperatures as high 05 2,700 deg. 
F., passes through o cooler before 
going to storage. 



materials used in Portland cement manufacture 

source: Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior 



In 1953 — the latest year for which data on raw materials are available — the Bureau 

of Mines reported that approximately 84,937,000 tons of raw materials (exclusive of 

fuels and explosives) entered into the manufacture of 260,524,908 bbl. of portland 

cement in the United States. This is an average of about 643 lb. of raw materials for 

each barrel of finished portland cement weighing 376 lb. Loss of weight is caused by 

the process of calcination, in which moisture, carbon dioxide and other gases are driven 

off in the kilns. Materials are chiefly high-calcium limestone, clay or shale, argillaceous 

limestone, blast-furnace slag and marl. Totals were: short 

tons 

cement rock 14,579,919 

limestone and oyster-shells 55,619,940 

marl 1,291,726 

clay and shale . 8,606,483 

blast-furnace slag 1,408,486 

gypsum 1,956,093 

sand and sandstone * 888,359 

iron materials • . 410,420 

other materials such as diatomite, fluorspar, pumicite, flue dust, 

pitch, red mud and rock, hydrated lime, tufa, cinders, calcium 

chloride, sludge, grinding acids, and air-entraining compounds . . , 176,173 

total 84,937,599 



i 



i 



The following quantities of fuel were used by the portland cement industry in 1954 
in the manufacture of 271,277,000 bbl. of portland cement in the United States and 

its territories:' 13 ' 

coa | 8,158,784 tons 

o\\ [ . [ ] . 276,521,238 gal. 

gas [ [ " 126,015,150 cu.ft. 

Based on 1952 figures of cement production and fuel consumption in those plants 
that use one fuel exclusively, the following amounts of fuel were required to produce 
one barrel of cement;l c ) 

coal "Mlb. 

oil m 8.55 gal. 

natural gas . . . ^ 4Q5 cu »' 

(a) Figures are for all cement-mill fuel consumption—including the process of burning in the kilns, 
independent power production and other uses. 

(b) Mineral Industry Surveys, Monthly Cement Report No. CP 403, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department 

of the Interior, 1954. 

k) Mineral Industry Surveys, Mineral Market Report No. MMS 2232, Bureau of Mines, U.S. Depart- 
ment of the Interior, 1952. 



Storage bins are filled and emptied 
by a traveling crane with clamshell 
bucket that operates the length and 
width of the area. Clinker, gypsum, 
crushed limestone and other mate- 
rials are stored here. 




country 1 ** 



North America 



Canada 

Cubo 

Dominican Repu 

Guolemola 

Jomoico 



blic 



South America 



Argentina 

Bolivia 

Broul 

Chile 

Colombia 



Europe 



Austito 

Belgium 

Bulgaria 

Ci t i hotlovc- 

Denmark , 

I nlond 

once 
Soar 

tokt Geimony 
Weil Grtma- 
Cnctit » 

Hungary 

4y 



Alio 



Bwma 
ylon 
China 
Hong Kong 
India 

do Ch 
Indo- \0 

an 
Iraq 



production 
in barrel. 



country 



(•) 



production 

In barrel* lb) 



577,000 
385,000 
7 52,000 
393,000 
566,000 



Mexico . . 
Nicaragua . 
Panama 
Salvador 
United States 



9,639,000 

199.000 
11.967,000 

4.468,000 
5.119.000 



Ecuador 

Poroguay 
Peru 

Uruguay 
Venezuela 



+ 



8.173,000 
7,124.000 
3,811,000 
5,362.000 
7,388.000 
5.494.000 
063,000 
1.788.000 
J 486,000 
0, 160.000 
4.116.000 
6.450.000 
4.291.000 



Luxembourg 

Nefherlandt 

Norway 

Poland 

Portugal 

Rumania 

Spain 

Sweden 

Swiiiorland 

USSK 

United Kingdom 

Yugoslavia 



9.B03.OO0 

141,000 

469,000 

212,000 

267,665,000 d) 



000 
000 
000 
000 

000 



862.000 

5.048,000 

4,492.000 

19,466.000 

4.509,000 

12,31 i OOO 

19.091,000 

13,579,000 

9.276.000 

93,813.000 

66.824.000 

7.511.OO0 



240,000 
377,000 

.3.486.000 
j77,OO0 

22.514,000 

1.7O6.OO0 

868,000 

410,000 

1.038,000 

■'76 000 



Japan 

Korea. Rep o< 

Lebanon 

Malaya 
Pakuton 
Philippine*, Hop of 
Syria 

loiwon »a«m©» 

Thailand 

Turkey 






51,409,000 

258,000 

1,788,000 

1 52.OO0 

3,553.000 

I / 40 OOO 

1,313.000 
3 049.000 
1,689,000 
3.108,000 



Africa 



Algeria 
Angola 
fcelgion 

» ri 










870,000 

170,000 

1,636.000 

6,43V 000 

59,000 



French Morocco 
French We»l A< a 
North Rhodetia 

Tui.'vta 

Union of So A Into 



577,000 
352 ,000 
410,000 
331.000 
454.000 



OcMftea Acirtalio 



total 



9 



9.37 • • 



028.283,000 



New Zealand 



• 



1,642,000 









1' 



bbl 376 h 

jn to count 1 vted. cement »* produced m j ond E 

•ododior. a brlit-veC to b* negligible 

odudton o< d cemen* i United Stole* see tc on page 1 / 

Dato not ovoilotoi* *o» >«'odago*co« 'Aoiambique, N • » eo and Sow 

uded i" t 



* 





hat it is 



d how it is mad 




(.<»s< 1:1 i i i i mixture iii uliK h a [i i-i'- of |" I < 

Water hind* ay egutes (inert material* -u< h a- -in. I in. I gru\ crushed -'■ 
|,|,i-l fnrtia« . -I .;-■ J inlo i f< klik.- ti..i-- If th( pafll I -h u •!« n«. tin .. h the ch il 

.,, i,, ,n -.1 Hi- - 1 incnl Mid wain \ dui ible ill % • n< r< tc ii lin i by < i 
rectly proportioning an) |.i..|..-iK mixing ih<- m nt« -•• I il th. entii 

| ,. vrrs | , | r I I < le of M. - ill- ft'-lll the - -I r ' "" "' I '" !i "' ' 

|»li'« '• of ni.ior in.il.l l.il i- i|»l< 1*1 ' d th II" " "I | i I lllil thf 

the tpaeea between aggr< itepartiele- in pi telj fil I with tin ■ \> 

\\ f..ri hrst linked, | ODCrete i* , .. ■ . I ■, m< I \l tin l.i '1" •' '" 

smooth mjiI r I.mi-Ii.mI to obtain .i tough textun cm ihaped into ntal 

pall'iii II i- often |.l.n > <l in -|"- iaIU nuule I ni-. to reprotl 

mentation ami inti u it. il< 

ProDorlionni ..f id. inun ilienl* .<l i oni rete i I I nn 

1 

i| |r rnixtur< \ |«im|miI\ .1. - 1 ■• r i . . I mix will il"- •! 'I 

in both il" froli ni.l hardened i - rete. 

I he ■ li ai m let oi th< tm reti ii d< let ed in largi th< tlit) ol 

the cement w ttei paatc thai bindi th< i II I ■"' 

ust'il, ill.' |.i>i.' !»••< omet thm m.1 <lilui> -I mil when il v| 'l be too v\ ik i 



Easily 
Molded 



Water- 
Cement 
Ratio 



Good concrete .» ob ied by correct proportio 9 of moteriali ond proper n- «q ond 

coring Here art I A concrete mature m wh.ch -nere i» not sufficient cement «>nd mortar to fill all 
the ipacei between coane aggregate pa. Such o muture will be difficult to handte and place 

and will result In rough honeycomb* I .urface* ond 1 concrete 2' A concrete 

contain* the correct amount of cement tand mortar W light troweling all »pac»t b#t-*en coane 

aggregate p< cle* are lied w.th mortar ) A concrete rr ire » o of 

cemanf tand morlar Wh.le »uch a mi.ture workable and w.ll produce »moo'h ,«rfacev the y.eld o» 
concrete w.ll be low and conjequenlly uneconomical. 




Section 2 



hold the aggregates firmly together. The strength of the cement paste and ulti- 
mately the durability, strength and other properties of the concrete depend on the 
amount of mixing water used. The relation of water to cement is usually referred 
to as the water-cement ratio. The higher this ratio, that is, the more water used 
per unit of cement, the less durable and strong will be the concrete. The lower 
this ratio, so long as the concrete is workable, the better will be the quality of 

the concrete. 

Concrete can be made to have any desired degree of watertightness. It can be 

made to hold water or other liquids and resist the penetration of wind-driven rain. 
Yet for some special purposes, such as filter beds, concrete can be made porous 
and highly permeable. 

Economy in a concrete mixture designed for durability, strength and water- 
tightness is effected by using no more cement paste than is required to coat all 
the aggregate surfaces and fill all the voids. 

Purpose Concrete can be given a polished surface as hard as glass. By the use of heavy 
Determines aggregates, dense concrete mixtures can be made that will weigh 250 lb. or more 

per cu.ft. With the use of light aggregates or special processes, it can also be made 
so light that it will float, and can be sawed or nailed like lumber — weighing as 



little as 30 lb. per cu.ft. The type of mixture used is determined by the purpose 
for which the concrete is intended. 

For very small jobs and for minor repairs, concrete can be mixed by hand, but 
mixing concrete bv machine insures more uniform batches as well as more thor- 
ough mixing of ingredients. 

For most home repairs and improvements such as floors, walks, driveway* 
pla\ courts, garden pools, storage cellars or garden furniture, the following pro- 
portions of concrete materials are recommended: 1 bag (1 cu.ft.) of portland ce- 
ment, 6 gaL of \\ater. and such quantities of sand and gravel as will result in a 
workable mixture (usualh 2 cu.ft. of dry sand and 3 cu.ft. of coarse aggregates). 
W hen properly mixed, these proportions will produce a watertight concrete that is 
highly resistant to weather and wear. If the sand is wet, add 5 gab of mixing 
water for each bag of cement (instead of 6 gab), since 2 cu.ft. of wet sand will 
contain approximately 1 gab of water. Any water that is fit to drink is suitable to 
use for making concrete. 

Aggregates The aggregates should be clean, sound and free from vegetable matter. Commer- 
cial aggregates are usually suitable. 

All sand (fine aggregate! should pass through a ^-in. sieve (one with four 
openings to the inch). The size of coarse aggregates depends on the thickness 
of the member for which the concrete is to be used. In building garden pools, for 
example, or other structures with relatively thin sections, a small-diameter coarse 
aggregate would be used, while— at the other extreme— aggregates up to 6 in. or 
more in diameter are used in large dams. In general, the maximum diameter of 
coarse aggregate should not be larger than one-fifth of the narrowest dimension 
of the concrete member in which it is used. 

22 



After the concrete is thoroughly mixed and of the desired workability, it should Placing 
be placed in the forms within l 1 /? hours after mixing. It should be of proper and 
workability at the time of placing and should be well compacted and spaded dur- F,n,s ,ns 

ing the placing process. 

On such jobs as floors, walks, steps and driveways, the concrete should be lev- 
eled off with a straight-edged board as soon as it is placed, and then allowed to 
stand until the film of moisture disappears from the surface. It should then be 
smoothed off quickly with a woodfloat. If a very smooth surface is desired, the 
concrete may be finished with a steel trowel after the woodfloat has been used. 
The woodfloat, however, produces a nonslippery surface highly desirable for 
walks, steps and driveways. A steel trowel should be used sparingly and only 
after the concrete has become quite stiff, in order to avoid bringing an excessive 
amount of fine particles to the surface. 

After exposed surfaces of the concrete have hardened sufficiently to resist mar- 
ring, they should be sprinkled with water and protected by moisture-retaining 
materials such as canvas, burlap or moist sand, to prevent their drying out. The 
longer concrete is kept moist, the more durable and stronger it will become. In 
hot weather it should be kept moist for not less than three days. 

■ 

Ready-mixed concrete is concrete produced by a manufacturer and delivered by 
truck to the construction site. The method of mixing may vary. It may be done at 
the manufacturer's plant, on the truck in transit, or at the job site. 

Ready-mixed concrete became established as an important construction mate- 
rial soon after World War I and has grown steadily in popularity. According to 
estimates of the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, there are approxi- 
mately 2,000 ready-mixed concrete producers in the United States and Canada. 

Although most people recognize the more common uses of concrete around the 
home and for the paving of streets and highways, few realize the extent to which 
they are surrounded by and dependent on concrete. 

It is interesting to note in a U.S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook this 

statement: 

"Portland cement occupies a dominant position in modern civilization. . . . 

It is now regarded as indispensable in highways, sidewalks, bridges and dams; 
in the construction of virtually all large buildings; and in airport runways, dry 
docks, harbors and a multitude of other major and minor projects. Both farmers 
and city dwellers use it in innumerable ways. ' 



Ready 
Mixed 
Concr 



A 

Thousand 

Uses 



Here is one of America's most popular ma- 
chines in action. Concrete mixers like this 
one are mostly used for small projects and 
around-the-house jobs. 




•* 



air 



entrained concrete 



First 
Developed 

for 
Highways 



Air-entrained concrete— one of the newest developments in the 
cement and concrete industries — contains billions of microscopic air cells per 
cubic foot. These relieve internal pressure on the concrete by providing tiny 
chambers for the expansion of water when it freezes. 

Air-entrained concrete is produced through the use of air-entraining portland 
cement— or b\ the introduction of air-entraining agents under careful engineering 
supervision as the concrete is mixed on the job. The amount of entrained air is 
usually between 3 and 6 per cent of the volume of the concrete, but may be varied 
from this as required by special conditions. 

A direct result of many years of intensive research by the Portland Cement 
Association and others, air-entraining portland cement is made by grinding small 
amounts of soaplike resinous or fatty materials with normal cement clinker. 

The general practice of using calcium or sodium chlorides to melt ice on roads and 
streets created the necessity for a means of protecting concrete pavements from 
surface scaling caused h\ the action of these chemicals. Air-entraining portland 
cement was originally developed to prevent this scaling. 

The use of air-entraining agents results in concrete that: (1) is highly resistant 
to severe frost action and cycles of wetting and dn ing or freezing and thawing: 
(2) has a high immunity to the surface scaling caused by excessive amounts of 
chemicals used to melt pavement ice; and (3) has a remarkably high degree of 
workability and durability. 



The West Virginia Turnpike, shown below, is an example of air-entrainment construction, with sawed 
joints to provide a smoother ride for the motorist. Thirty-six state highway departments now specify 
air-entrained concrete for pavements. 





P»" 





For these reasons, the value of air-entrained concrete has become widely rec- 
ognized in the past 10 years, not only for pavements but for other types of con- 
crete construction. 

Air-entrained concrete is currently being specified by 36 state highway de- 
partments for all pavements, and under some conditions, by 10 others. In addi- 
tion, many of these same states specify its use in all bridges and structures. It is 
also specified for appropriate jobs by federal agencies. 

A survey of the condition of 14 experimental highway sections in five north- 
eastern states — with an average age of 12% years — proved that concrete pave- 
ments made with air-entraining portland cement withstand severe exposure in- 
cluding frequent applications of ice-removing chemicals. All the experimental 
projects were on main state routes subject to heavy traffic. Although other slabs 
show r ed varying degrees of scaling, no scaling whatever occurred on the slabs 
made with air-entrained concrete. 



do you know that . 



A $4 million floating concrete drydock being completed by the U.S. Navy contains 145,800 cu.ft. 
of concrete, weighs 12,800 tons and will have a lifting capacity of 4,000 tons? It will be equipped 
with its own power system and will be capable of ocean trips. 

The new auditorium at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has a thin-shell concrete roof 
that in shape resembles a spherical triangle? The roof consists of two concrete shells separated by 
2 in. of rigid insulation. It is supported at only three points, with a 160-ft. span between each point. 

The tallest chimney in the world is that of a copper company at Sagazanoseki, Japan? Built of 
reinforced concrete, it is 570 ft. high, with an outside diameter at the base of approximately 42V2 
ft. and an inside diameter at the top of 26 ft. It has withstood earthquakes successfully. 

Through use of lightweight aggregates such as expanded blast-furnace slag, expanded shale, and 
natural products like pumice, the weight of finished concrete floors, bridge decks, roofs and struc- 
tural members can be reduced by as much as one-third? 



These magnified pictures show an ordinary straight pin photographed on two different crosssection 
specimens of concrete. On the left is a specimen of air-entrained concrete showing air cells, which 
total billions in a cubic foot. On the right is a section of non-air-entrained concrete. 



•K 



what it is 



and what it does 



I 



The Portland Cement Association is a national, nonprofit, un- 
incorporated organization to improve and extend the uses of portland cement and 
concrete. Established with its main offices in Chicago since 1916, the Association 
is supported by the voluntary financial contributions of its more than 70 member 
cement companies in the United States and Canada. These member companies, 
widely spread geographically and operating 152 separate plants, produce a very 
large proportion of all portland cement used in the United States and Canada. 

The founders of the Association realized that in order for portland cement to 
merit and attain widespread use and public confidence, a vast amount of basic 
research, product development, technical service, education and promotion would 
be required. If each company were to have undertaken this task independently, 
a tremendous duplication of effort and expense would have resulted. The Port- 
land Cement Association was therefore formed in the interest of economy and 
efficiency and to insure a coordinated and sustained attack on the many complex 
problems of research, development and expansion of markets. 

The Association's work is classified under four principal divisions: 

1. Scientific research in the field of portland cement and concrete. 

2. Development of new and improved cement-using products and methods. 

3. Promotion, educational work and technical service to extend the uses of 
portland cement and to improve concrete quality. 

4. Accident prevention work to encourage safety in the plants of its member 

companies. 

To carry out this program, the Association maintains a general headquarters 
staff and a field organization. The headquarters staff is made up of more than 
200 scientists, engineers, architects and writers, some employed in the Associa- 
tion's General Office in downtown Chicago, others in the PCA's Research and 
Development Laboratories 16 miles northwest of Chicago, and still others in con- 
nection with a fellowship at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, 
D.C. The field organization includes more than 350 engineers, architects and farm 
specialists working out of 32 district offices and serving cement users in 46 states, 
the District of Columbia, and British Columbia. 

The general headquarters staff I which includes the Research and Development 
Division) and the field organization work as a team to accomplish the Associa- 
tion's objectives. General headquarters coordinates and gives direction to the 



26 



Section 3 - PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION 




The manifold activities of the Portland Cement Association are directed from this all-concrete general 
headquarters building in Chicago. The Association maintains 32 district offices to serve cement users 
in 46 states, the District of Columbia and British Columbia. 



program and develops the required scientific and technical information. The field 
organization uses this material in direct contacts with the public. 

The Association is in no way engaged in the production, distribution, pricing 
or selling of portland cement. It does not speak for the cement industry on com- 
mercial matters, and it has nothing to do with trade practices. But through its 
own research findings, its cooperation with other research and technical organi- 
zations, its wide variety of technical literature, its advertising and the daily con- 
tact of its skilled engineering staff with the actual problems of the designer and 
builder, the Portland Cement Association has become recognized as: 

1. Principal source of technical service to cement users. 

2. Clearinghouse for a vast fund of reliable, up-to-date information on portland 
cement, the making of concrete, design procedures and construction methods. 

3. Leader in research and development studies on cement and concrete. 

This record of cooperative research, development, education, service to the 
user, promotion of product and safety work is a source of pride and satisfaction 
to the cement companies whose support and membership in the Association have 
made these accomplishments possible. 

27 



•* 




ent and 



concrete research 



Without a program of continuing scientific research in labo- 
ratory and field, many applications of portland cement and concrete, common* 
place today, would be unknown or prohibitive in cost America's network of 
concrete highways could not have been developed so rapidly but for painstaking 
research. The vast power and irrigation projects of today apply practical engi- 
neering principles that were untried theories half a century ago. Without the scien- 
tific developments and advances in concrete technology made possible by research, 
America todav would have fewer soaring skyscrapers, modern factories or fire- 
safe schools, hospitals, apartment buildings and homes- 

The people who direct the Portland Cement Association's research program 
recognize that establishing definite practices governing the use of cement insures 
reliable products, their proper application and the development of cement to its 
greatest usefulness. And in harmony with the broadest conception of public sen - 
ice. it is Association policy to make all scientific discoveries and new develop- 
ment- relating to cement and cDiirri'te fully, freelj and immediately available tn 
the public. All patentable inventions resulting from Association research and 
development work are given to the public gratis. 




The Portland Cement Association's 
Research and Development Labora- 
tories near Chicago are the largest 
and most completely equipped in the 
world devoted exclusively to research 
on cement and concrete. 



By listening to concrete specimens 
"sing" on this high-frequency sonic 
testing machine, laboratory scientists 
gain important information for de- 
signing concrete to give maximum 
service for highways and countless 
other structures. 



Since 1916, when the Portland Cement Association established research labora- Research 

Findings 



tories in Chicago, many important contributions have been made to concrete 
technology. Some of these developments have resulted in substantial savings in the 
cost of construction and greater durability and longer life for concrete structures. 



Important 



The water-cement ratio principle of proportioning concrete mixtures was among 

the earliest and most far-reaching developments of Association research (see page 

21). This established the fact of a definite relationship between the durability, 

strength and other properties of concrete and the amount of mixing water used 

per unit of cement measure. Another important contribution of cement industry 

research is the development of air-entraining portland cement to resist severe frost 

action and pavement scaling when certain chemicals are used to melt pavement ice 

(see page 24). Pressure-grouting to stabilize railway and highway subgrades and 

tunnels (see page 106), and soil-cement for low-cost light-traffic paving on roads, 

streets and airports (see page 61) are other important research developments. 

In addition to research conducted in the Association's large laboratories near 

Chicago, numerous field projects are in progress in many widely separated sections 

of the country— in low and high altitudes, in states with severe winter climate 

and in semitropical areas. 

A far-reaching research project relating to portland cement is the long-time study Long-Time 
of the performance of portland cement in concrete, started in 1940. This project is Study 
sponsored and financed by the Portland Cement Association, and conforms to a 
program prepared by an advisory committee made up of eight prominent re- 
search engineers and scientists outside the cement industry and four directly 
representing the industry. The basic purpose of the investigation is to determine 
what factors are responsible where differences in performance are found. More 
than 24,000 individual containers were required for the cement samples. 

One phase of these studies was the building of two-lane concrete test pavements 
totaling more than six miles. Nearly 400 test sections were built with various 
materials used in rotation on different sections. 

29 



Under 
Way 



In this room of the Portland Cement 
Association laboratories, the relative 
humidity can be controlled between 
10 and 80 per cent. Under controlled 
conditions, lightweight aggregate 
concrete columns are being tested for 
"creep" under sustained loads over 
an extended period of time. 




A PCA physicist removes samples of 
cement paste from a revolving turn- 
table in a controlled-atmosphere cab- 
inet to a scale where minute varia- 
tions in weight due to moisture evap- 
oration are measured. 




This small autoclave is used at the PCA 

laboratories to cure concrete masonry units 

under high steam pressure. Units ore used 
for test purposes. 



Other phases of the project included the casting and driving of large concrete 
piles into the waters of Cape Cod, the Hudson River, the Atlantic Ocean near St. 
Augustine, and the Pacific Ocean near Los Angeles; observation of the durability 
of a thousand concrete beams exposed to alkali soils near Sacramento, Calif.; 
testing of concrete at large dams in the high Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Moun- 
tains; and the establishment of two experimental test plots in Illinois and Georgia 
where some 2,000 concrete specimens are exposed to varying weather and soil 
conditions. All this involved the making of 9,000 laboratory specimens and 2,800 
field specimens before the projects could get under way. 

These far-flung studies are of direct and substantial benefit to the public. The 
findings will result in improving the durability and lengthening the service life of 
concrete structures under the various conditions of exposure. 

In addition to sponsoring numerous laboratory and field research projects, the 
Association maintains a staff of research scientists at the National Bureau of 
Standards in Washington. D.C. They are working under a cooperative fellowship 
set up to study basic problems relating to the constitution and properties of port- 
land cement. 

A survey conducted by the American Concrete Institute Committee on Research 
has disclosed that engineering colleges and private and governmental agencies 
are engaged in more than 350 different research projects involving portland cement 
and concrete. The Portland Cement Association is actively cooperating in many 
of these projects in addition to its own research work. Included among the other 
agencies that are contributing much to cement and concrete technology are the 
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the National Bureau of Standards, the American 
Society for Testing Materials, engineering staffs of the Army, Navy and Air Force, 
the Public Roads Administration, and numerous state highway departments. 

The Association's $3 million laboratories located 16 miles northwest of Chicago 



are the largest and most completely equipped in the world devoted exclusively to 
research on cement and concrete. Dedicated in 1950, they contain more than 
98,000 sq.ft. of floor space and provide facilities for the research and development 
phases of the Association's manifold program of service. 



Maintains 
Staff in 
Washington 



One part of the Portland Cement Associa- 
tion's research program is a comparative 
long-time study of cement performance in 
concrete structures subjected to a variety of 
exposure conditions typical of those encoun- 
tered in the United States. 




* 



educational program 






The job of the Portland Cement Association's educational pro- 
. gram is to shorten the lag between the research laboratory and the actual field 
application of improved techniques in the use of cement and concrete. This pro- 
gram is of direct benefit to the public because it makes new developments and 
scientific discoveries in the field of cement and concrete immediately available to 
the people who will actually use them. Thus everyone benefits— from the contractor 
building a skyscraper and the home-owner installing a backyard barbecue pit, to 
the millions of people who drink water brought to them in a concrete pipe, live 
in firesafe concrete homes, drive on concrete highways over concrete bridges, 
work in concrete buildings, and in many other ways find concrete a vital part of 
their ever} day lives. 



Booklets One of the most important educational activities of the Association is the prepara- 

A |c * tion and distribution of a wide range of informative literature. The Association 

has available more than 400 individual publications covering the many fields in 
Users . r & j 

which cement and concrete are used. 

Ranging from highly technical publications written for architects and engineers 
to simple, easily understandable information on how to build a septic tank, a base- 
ment wall or a sidewalk, single copies of these booklets are furnished free on indi- 
vidual requests originating in the United States and Canada. 

Almost four and a half million pieces of Association literature are distributed 
in the average year. This figure includes technical reports and regular Association 
periodicals in addition to specially prepared booklets and information sheets. 
All publications are designed for the specific purpose of helping the users obtain 
the best possible service from portland cement. 

Educational The Association carries on a continuous program of educational advertising as 
Advertising an important means of keeping portland cement users informed on new develop- 
ments in portland cement and concrete. National advertising appears in trade, 
professional, housing, farm and general consumer publications. Local advertising 
is placed through Association district offices in more than a thousand newspapers 
and local publications each year. 

Lectures, As a part of its educational program, the Association staff gives hundreds of lec- 

or tures and demonstrations for engineers, construction superintendents and k orkers. 
Offered * arrners an ^ ot hers to help them get maximum service from concrete. It also pro- 
vides educational information for engineering and architectural colleges, voca- 

32 



tional schools, farm organizations, technical groups and construction agencies, and 
assists with instruction on improved methods of concrete design and construction. 

Another important phase of the educational program includes the Association's 
"short courses/' In the last five years, more than 286.000 engineers, architects, 
contractors, producers of ready-mixed concrete, concrete products manufacturers 
and others have attended these courses to study how best to use portland cement, 
make quality concrete and soil-cement, and design and build concrete pavements 
and structures. 

Association field representatives— active in 46 states, the District of Columbia 
and British Columbia— are in close touch with the storehouse of technical infor- 
mation compiled by the Association. By educating builders in the uses of cement, 
they help make it possible for the public to realize immediate benefits from new 
and improved construction practices. However, at no time does the Association 
staff furnish engineering or architectural plans, or in any way assume the func- 
tions of the engineer or architect. 



The Association makes wide use of visual aids in its educational program. It has 
a number of slides and films, most of the latter in sound and color, to portray 
graphically the manufacture of portland cement and its use in many fields. These 
films are in constant demand by engineering and technical organizations, and bv 
industrial, agricultural, business, social and educational groups. 

The end result of the Association educational program is that thousands of 
engineers, architects, contractors and other users of cement are able— through inti- 
mate knowledge of latest developments— to effect immediate economies and improve 
the strength and durability of concrete structures to the ultimate benefit of even 
citizen of the country. 



Visual 

Aids 

Popular 



The two libraries of the PCA contain one of the most outstanding collections of technical material on 
cement and concrete to be found anywhere in the world. 




■£ 



safety record 



of the 




industry 



Outstanding 

Safety 
Record 



Portland cement manufacturers have demonstrated that disabili- 
ties and suffering from accidental injuries can be prevented by consistent educa- 
tional and engineering work. Likewise, loss of earnings and production time by 
employes can be reduced to a minimum. And what is good for the employes has 

proved good for the entire industry. 

The past 30 years have seen the number of occupational injuries per million 
man-hours worked reduced 90 per cent in the plants of member companies of the 
Portland Cement Association. In that period it is estimated that thousands of lives 
have been saved, more thousands of permanently disabling work injuries averted, 
and more than 100,000 other lost-time injuries prevented as a result of Associa- 
tion-sponsored safety programs. 

For years, cement manufacture has been named by the National Safety Council 
as one of the safest of the heavy industries. And of the 40 basic industries studied 
by that organization, it is ranked among the four safest. The 1955 experience is 
based on reports from 156 cement plants that operated 79,184,757 man-hours. 
The injury frequency rate of 2.66 per million man-hours is 62 per cent below the 
1955 rate for all 40 industries. And cement-making involves the admittedly hazard- 
ous operations of quarrying, mining and blasting, and the use of high-voltage 
electric current, intense heat and some of the world's largest moving machinery. 
The cement industry's success in reducing occupational injuries results from a 
carefully planned and humane approach to the problem of safety. Revision of 
work methods through engineering studies is a basic procedure. This is combined 
with the provision of mechanical safeguards where needed, plus persistent safety 
education, safety training, and competition for low accident records among em- 
ploye groups. All these phases of the accident prevention program are whole- 
hearted!) supported by the Association members. 




Left— The safety flog is flown proudly 
below the American flag at a cement 
plant. Below both is a flag signifying 
that the employes of this plant have 
worked 1,000 accident-free days. 
Right— The Portland Cement Associ- 
ation safety trophy. 



Contributing in large measure to industry-wide interest in accident prevention Trophy 



is the safety trophy awarded and reawarded annually by the Association to cement 
mills that operate a full calendar year without a lost-time injury. In 30 years, 163 
plants have operated the equivalent of 1,092 years without a lost-time accident, 
a safety record believed to be unparalleled by any other industry. 

Ninety plants have earned the coveted right to membership in the Associations 
unique Thousand-Day Club, which comprises plants credited with more than 
1,000 successive safe days of operation. A number have operated without lost- 
time accidents from 5 to 12 consecutive years, and one has a record of 17 succes- 
sive years without a disabling injury. 

The National Safety Council and U.S. Bureau of Mines have awarded highest 
honors to the Portland Cement Association for promoting safety in the plants of 
its member companies, and to many individual plants for perfect safetx records. 



Awarded 
Annually 



90 Plants 

Earn 

Membership 



• 







temporarily 
disabling 


perma- 
nent 




disabling 

injuries 

per million 


no-accid< 


»nt plants 




plants 


■ ■ W ■ ■ 1 

dis- 






per cent 


year 


reporting 


injuries 


abilities 


fatalities 


man-hours 


number 


of total 


1925 


120 


2,541 


77 


61 


27.50 


2 


1.7 


1926 


124 


2,172 


67 


45 


23.45 


2 


1.6 


1927 


134 


1,337 


66 


30 


15.27 


10 


7.5 


1928 


136 


877 


75 


33 


11.48 


17 


12.5 


1929 


138 


686 


55 


37 


10.28 


26 


18.8 


1930 


128 


420 


48 


18 


6.97 


43 


33.6 


1931 


100 


197 


23 


17 


6.22 


42 


42.0 


1932 


112 


125 


16 


5 


5.27 


42 


37.5 


1933 


116 


120 


23 


7 


5.70 


54 


46.6 


1934 


127 


185 


31 


16 


7.14 


43 


33.9 


1935 


124 


170 


41 


8 


6.84 


43 


34.7 


1936 


- 120 


247 


37 


17 


7.67 


36 


30.0 


1937 


118 


176 


39 


16 


5.17 


38 


32.2 


1938 


116 


136 


29 


11 


4.66 


51 


44.0 


1939 


125 


147 


31 


6 


4.26 


47 


37.6 


1940 


129 


178 


34 


12 


4.90 


47 


36.4 


1941 


129 


261 


45 


12 


5.99 


33 


25.6 


1942 


131 


358 


43 


43 


7.58 


24 


18.3 


1943 


130 


349 


33 


13 


7.78 


30 


23.1 


1944 


129 


292 


28 


15 


8.47 


33 


25.6 


1945 


128 


289 


29 


7 


7.99 


40 


31.3 


1946 


136 


403 


52 


10 


7.88 


30 


22.1 


1947 


134 


390 


58 


21 


7.23 


30 


22.4 


1948 


136 


398 


52 


21 


6.81 


24 


17.6 


1949 


137 


287 


57 


17 


5.18 


42 


30.7 


1950 


141 


279 


47 


12 


4.83 


44 


31.2 


1951 


142 


248 


48 


13 


4.22 


44 


31.0 


1952 


146 


270 


54 


20 


4.64 


48 


32.9 


1953 


148 


243 


34 


14 


3.81 


55 


37.2 


1954 


152 


205 


45 


6 


3.38 


66 


43.4 


1955 


156 


170 


29 


12 


2.66 


64 


41.0 



(a) Source: Accident Prevention Bureau of the Portland Cement Association, covering accident 
experience in member-company plants in the United States and Canada. 






of portland cemen 



The Highway Job Ahead (page 39) . . . 

tells why the 3.366.000 miles of roads and streets in the United States are facing 
an alarming crisis. The difficulties in meeting the problems of highway mainte- 
nance, replacement and improvement are pointed out. along with an explanation 
of what is being done by the federal government and various state highway de- 
partments to provide facilities for today's traffic needs as well as for the expected 
future growth in motor-vehicle traffic. 

Early Concrete Pavements (page 46 1 ... 

gives facts about some historic concrete pavements in the United States and 
Canada and is illustrated with photographs of some early concrete streets. 



• » ♦ 



Highway Research (page 48) 

describes what highway engineers and research scientists are doing through va- 
rious public and private agencies and organizations to lower the cost and lengthen 
the sen ice life of roads and streets so that road users will get the utmost in safe 
and convenient travel for what they pay in motor-fuel and other taxes. 

Freeways (page 52) . . . 

explains what freeways are. where they should be built, and how traffic authori- 
ties determine the need for them in both urban and rural areas. 

Highway Financing (page 54 1 ... 

describes the federal-aid highway program over a period of years and defines 
and explains diversion of highway revenues. The entire picture of federal-aid 
legislation is presented, together with a brief discussion of highway financing 
methods employed by various states. 

Highway Safety (page 59 1 ... 

points out the various steps being taken to cut traffic accidents, tells what is being 
accomplished and by what means, and discusses the organizations that have con- 
tributed to highway safety. 

Soil-Cement (page 61 1 ... 

describes the present-day uses of low-cost soil-cement, the reasons for its rapid 
development, and the soil-cement process, which makes use of about 9 parts of 
soil found on the site to be improved. 1 part of portland cement, and sufficient 
water to permit compaction of the mixture into a stable and durable material. 

Concrete for Airports (page 65) . . . 

tells how concrete meets the exacting construction needs of modern airports, 
which must keep pace with rapid advances in aircraft design, particularly with 
the growing use of jet planes b\ the military and their expected early extension 
into the commercial airline field. It also points out the importance of runway 
construction in airport safety and explains federal assistance offered for the con- 
struction and maintenance of airports. 

36 



and concrete 



Reinforced Concrete (page 68) ... 

traces the development of the use of steel reinforcement (high in tensile strength) 
in combination with concrete (high in compressive strength) to produce structural 
members capable of sustaining heavy loads. 

Architectural Concrete (page 70) ... 

is construction in which the concrete left exposed determines the architectural 
appearance of the building. This article summarizes the history and gives ex- 
amples of architectural concrete in this country from its beginning to its present 
widespread use for all architectural styles. 

Tilt-Up (page 73) ... 

is a method of construction in which concrete walls are cast in a horizontal posi- 
tion and then tilted into place. In addition to describing the tilt-up construction 
process, this article explains the types of construction best adapted to tilt-up and 
the architectural effects that may be achieved with it. 

Prestressed Concrete (page 74) . . . 

discusses the points of difference between conventional reinforced concrete and 
this newer development in the structural field. Prestressing makes possible con- 
crete bridges, roofs and structural members with longer unsupported spans than 
ever before. Two methods of prestressing— pretension and posrtension — are dis- 
cussed, and the history and development of prestressed concrete are outlined. 

Concrete Bridges (page 77) 

discusses and gives examples of the four main types of reinforced concrete bridges 
(rigid frame, slab, girder and arch) and tells the story of the development of con- 
crete bridges in the United States. 

Railway Uses of Concrete (page 80) ... 

points out how railroads are today using large quantities of cement grout and 
concrete to improve railway construction and to reduce maintenance and replace- 
ment costs. Concrete is used in more than 160 ways in the operation and mainte- 
nance of America's 220,000 miles of railroad track. 

Concrete Shell Roofs (page 82) ... 

explains how long-span, high-ceilinged reinforced concrete roofs are making it 
possible to design and build gymnasiums, aircraft hangars and industrial build- 
ings with large amounts of clear, unobstructed floor space. Usually only 3 to 3Ms 
in. in thickness, these concrete shell roofs can be designed to span long distances 



without the support of interior columns, below-ceiling beams or trusses. 

Concrete for Housing (page 84) . . . 

points out the growing trend toward greater use of concrete in home construction 
and the reasons for this trend. Concrete masonry and reinforced concrete homes 
are described, as well as concrete floors, footings, foundations and basements. 



BRIEFED FOR EDITORS 



Farm Uses of Concrete (page 38) . . . 

describes many of the ways in which concrete makes the work of the farmer and 
his family easier while increasing farm profits. Among the topics discussed are 
the uses of concrete in the farmer's home, dairy barn, miikhouse, silo, feeding 
floor and barnyard pavement, farrowing house, poultry house, and septic-tank 
sewage-disposal system. 

Concrete in Conservation (page 93) ... 

points out that widespread concern over destruction of natural resources has led 
to increased efforts in the control and use of water. This article tells how concrete 
—by virtue of its use in the construction of dams, reservoirs, levees, flood walls, 
spillways and similar structures— is playing an important role in the restoration, 
preservation and sound development of the nation's natural resources. 

Concrete Masonry (page 98) ... 

is a term applied to block and brick building units molded of concrete and laid 
into a wall. This article describes the manufacturing process and uses of concrete 
masonry units. It also discusses the modular coordination method of building, 
firesafety tests conducted by Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., and the sound- 
absorption qualities of concrete masonry. 

Concrete Pipe (page 101 1 . . . 

tells how thousands of miles of concrete pipelines are serving the people of the 
United States in many vital ways. It discusses concrete pressure pipe, which trans- 
port water to our cities: concrete sewer pipe, which contribute immeasurably to 
communitv sanitation and health: and concrete irrigation pipe, which are used 
to convert semiarid regions into productive farm land. 

Precast Structural Members (page 104) . . . 

are being used in increasing numbers and toda\ have found an important place 
in almost every field of construction, for example, in rail-highway grade cross- 
ings. This article defines them and discusses uses of the major precast structural 
members, including concrete joists, piles, floor and roof slabs, and wall panels. 

Portland Cement Grouting (page 106) . . . 

is widely used for stabilizing and increasing the load capacity of railroad sub- 
grades and roadbeds, restoring old stone masonry, strengthening construction 
joints and improving foundations for dams. Because of its fluid consistency, it 
may be injected into places not easily accessible, and often obviates costly exca- 
vation and replacement. 

Oil-Weil Cementing (page 109) . . . 

explains how portland cement grout is used to protect the vital casing, through 
which oil flows, against breakage, collapse, corrosion or water seepage. 

Asbestos-Cement Products (page 110) . . . 

include a wide range of construction materials, the best known of which are sid- 
ing, roofing, shingles, corrugated sheets, flat building boards and conduits. This 
article describes the uses of asbestos-cement products and the "wet" and "dry" 
processes by which they are manufactured. 

38 



•# 



the highway job ahead 



America's highways today fare an alarming crisis. More than 
61 million <ars and trucks traveled in excess of 5'JO Inllion vehicle-miles <>n the 

nation's highways in 1M5.">. This represents an increase IB motor vehicles oi i 
per cent and an increase in vehicle-miles of 7'i per i ml since V>U>. \tid studie- 
of traflie trends show that these figures will continue to increase. 

Today 's highway system i> completely inadequate t<> cope w iih these b1 gei mg 

increases in vehicles and miles traveled. To expedite su< li .1 Bon oi vehicles, mofl 
iiiultilane highways must he huilt and the various scattered freeways connected 

and expanded into an integral system of highways thai will be economical!) and 

structurally sound— a system designed for -tie travel mil only today hul in th 

future as welL 

Thus, an important part of ll t.i-k ahead of highway engineers 1- to design 
and build roads that not only are adequate f«»r present Reeds but have Mill nl 

durability and capacity to carry increasing traffic for man) jrearsl n»* High- 

yyavs huiit 2r> or 30 years ago, while ud< <|uatc for tlie traffii oi that d i) bei ame 

obsolete when heavier vehicles and unforeseen volumes of tcilli. developed. 

An increasing number of stales since \\<»rld War II hive followed tin i I of 
California in planning for and working OUl practical r .-id building pr< rams in 

anticipation of tralhr needs of the next I •"> to 2<> years— programs thai in< orporal 

advanced principles of design developed bv engineers through long-ran;, planum- 

based on factual surveys. Th,- following 35 states have made ..r are making lonj 

range highway programs covering all toad- and streets in the -tal>-: 



Arizona 


Kansas 


Montana 


5< >uih 1 rako 


California 


Kentucky 


Nebraska 


renneaaee 


Colorado 


Louisiana 


\<w Hampshire 


t tab 


1 onnorlirut 


Maine 


New Wk 


\rrmont 


Florida 


\lar\ land 


North Carolina 


\ irginia 


Idaho 


Massachusetts 


North Dakota 


\\ ashington 


Illinois 


Michigan 


Ohio 


West \ irgij 


Indiana 


Minnesota 


Or on 


Wis* onsin 


Iowa 


Mississippi 


Rhode Island 





States 
Develop 

Programs 



The application of accurate, scientiln methods of determining trallx gr rtf] 
IS a recent development Highway engin applying data on traffic trend- 






Section 1 - CEMENT AND CONCRETE IN PAVING 



Upkeep 

Biggest 

Job 






in advance of construction so that new roads will not become obsolete before their 
term of life expectancy has expired. 

Development of rational planning of highways received its greatest impetus 
when, in 1934, Congress authorized the Public Roads Administration to allocate 
114 per cent of federal-aid funds to states for engineering planning. 

Summed up briefly, the ultimate aim of the planning surveys was to learn how 
extensive a system of highways the people of each state needed and could afford. 

More recent steps in the direction of state and federal cooperation for an im- 
proved road system have been the Federal-Aid Highway Acts passed by Congress 
since 1944 (see page 54) . These acts have authorized much larger appropriations 
for the postw r ar construction of highways and bridges. They have also inaugurated 
action on a 41,000-mile National S\ -tern of Interstate and Defense Highways that 
will connect 42 state capitals and 90 per cent of all cities of more than 50,000 
population. But the job of modernizing this system and improving its urban con- 
nections through the heart or around the edges of great cities is only beginning. 

Even the big and important job of providing new expressways is dwarfed in 
comparison with the staggering task of keeping existing roads and streets in safe 
operating condition. Thomas H. MacDonald, former commissioner of public 
roads, points out that there are only two methods of keeping roads and streets in 
continuous operation. The first is by intensive maintenance: the second, by replace- 
ment and improvement. The size of this job can be seen in the records of many 
state highway departments showing that roads are wearing out at the rate of 
40,000 miles a year. 

At the 194!! through 1954 average rate of replacement of obsolete roads under 
the control of the state highway departments, a period of more than 20 years will 
be required to rehabilitate these systems. 

If this period is added to the average age of today's roads (12 years), it must 



Commercial and pleasure vehicles move swiftly and safely on divided concrete highways such as this 
four-lane section of the Pennsylvania Turnpike. 




■ 














• 


V^ 




... 

* - * ' 






^^ 






kv _____ 



All states are engaged in programs 
of extending and improving their 
present highway facilities. This con- 
struction train is placing a ribbon of 
concrete in the modernization pro- 
gram of our national highways. 




be obvious, says former Commissioner MacDonald. that maintenance alone can- 
not possibly hold these roads in service and that new construction, based on the 
traffic needs of today and tomorrow, must be expanded. This is being done. 

There is yet another important phase of raising highway performance to the level 
of the efficiency attained by the automobile, and that is to solve the parking prob- 
lem in metropolitan areas. The usual methods of time-limited curb parking, park- 
ing meters and too few, scattered parking lots are obviously inadequate. In fact, 
much of the existing curb parking practice defeats its own purpose by adding to 
traffic chaos rather than relieving it. 



Parking 

Problem 

Urgent 



41 



year 



roads 



streets and 
alleys 



airports 



total 





1909 (a) . . . . 


. . . 66,687 


969,338 





1,036,025 




1910 


. . . 151,148 


790,511 





941,659 




1911 


. . . 291,077 


1,148,114 


— , — _ 


1,439,191 




1912 


. . . 1,869,486 


3,511,732 


_ 


5,381,218 




1913 


. . . 3,339,185 


4,254,584 





7,593,769 




1914 


. . . 10,608,421 


5,130,742 


— -— — 


15,739,163 




1915 


. . . 12,050,909 


6,546,800 


^__ — 


18,597,709 




1916 


. . . 15,906,801 


8,276,154 





24,182,955 




1917 


. . . 15,333,087 


6,438,092 





21,771,179 




1918 


12,990,519 


3,881,765 





16,872,284 


k^kV 


1919 


. . . 41,335,342 


12,124,592 


— — — 


53,459,934 




1920 


. . . 29,326,689 


9,721,946 


_ _ _ _ — 


39,048,635 




1921 


. . 43,862,503 


12,301,633 





56,164,136 




1922 


. . . 58,301,413 


20,784,292 





79,085,705 




1923 


50,893,999 


27,043,773 





77,937,772 




1924 


. . . 58,105,921 


34,134,240 




92,240,161 




1925 


. . . 63,895,104 


40,174,237 


_~ — — 


104,069,341 




1926 


. . . 64,978,458 


48,920,669 





113,899,127 




1927 


. . . 77,232,917 


53,030,516 





1 30,263,433 




1928 


. . . 93,531,487 


54,546,421 





148,077,908 




1929 


. . . 92,816,794 


47,203,957 





140,020,751 




1930 


. . . 108,008,062 


37,813,593 


^^_ _^_ ~_ 


145,821,655 




1931 


. . . 111,989,850 


22,927,002 





134,916,852 




1932 ... 


. . . 87,165,260 


1 0,397,690 





97,562,950 




1933 


. . . 40,097,069 


8,295,937 


430,774 


48,823,780 




1934 


. . . 30,203,993 


14,903,522 


67,246 


45,174,761 




1935 


. . . 30,971,959 


12,677,321 


147,271 


43,796,551 




1936 


. . . . 41,267,977 


16,425,379 


728,068 


58,421,424 




1937 


. . . . 39,945,532 


14,581,566 


518,588 


55,045,686 




1938 


. . . . 36,900,856 


18,345,456 


1,610,358 


56,856,670 




1939 .... 


. . . . 29,852,670 


19,369,260 


1,065,772 


50,287,702 




1940 .... 


. . . . 38,123,867 


18,379,298 


5,857,512 


62,360,677 




1941 .... 


34,880,387 


19,877,331 


29,213,344 


83,971,062 




1942 .... 


. . . . 23,654,271 


17,668,113 


92,900, 1 1 


134,222,494 




1943 ... 


. . . . 9,662,819 


9,071,960 


52,345,892 


71,089,671 




1944 .... 


. . . . 8,468,216 


5,827,461 


18,469,482 " 


32,765,159 




1945 .... 


. . . . 8,218,419 


5,140,518 


7,346,497 


20,705,434 




1946 .... 


. . . . 24,689,500 


12,129 r 582 


2,820,883 


39,639,965 




1947 


. . . . 21,861,087 


14,663,207 


1,582,552 


38,106.846 




1948 .... 


. . . . 25,412,655 


19,383,408 


2,736,485 


47,532,548 




1949 .... 


. . . . 24,965,362 


18,543,805 


2,735,659 


46,244,826 




1950 .... 


. . . . 28,330,381 


27,023,159 


3,174,771 


58,528,311 




1951 .... 


. . . . 24,921,240 


23,757,435 


14,063,399 


62,742,074 




1952 .... 


. . . . 27,019,483 


25,809,478 


9,636,7 1 


62,465,671 




1953 .... 


. . . . 42,355,652 


26,272,711 


9,939,915 


78,568,278 




1954 .... 


. . . . 38,026,658 


29,270,295 


1 8,034,085 


85,331,038 




1955 .... 


. . . . 40,733,279 


35,104,099 


17,621,234 


93,458,612 



totals 1,724,614,451 



884,592,694 



293,055,607< fa ) 2,902,262,752 



(°) Includes all previous years. 

(bj Airport yardage through 1932 was included in streets and alleys 



According to the International City Managers* Association, more than 500 
cities in the United States already are operating municipal off-street parking lots. 
Several large cities such as Chicago, San Francisco, Boston, Detroit and Washing- 
ton, D.C., are encouraging private enterprise to construct underground parking 
garages in or near the business districts or are doing the job themselves. New 
\brk and several other cities are trying to solve the parking problem by the con- 
struction of skyscraper mechanical garages with elevators instead of the usual 
ramp system found in two- and three-story garages. 

The creation of an integrated highway system that will meet the needs of present Cooperation 
and future traffic hinges on the prerequisites of thorough research, long-range Necessary 
planning and adequate financing. 

Such a system can be attained only through the full cooperation of local, state 
and federal officials, together with the driving public who pay the cost. Highway 
engineers are now in a position to apply facts obtained by research to the construc- 
tion of a safe, economical and efficient network of highways that will serve Ameri- 
ca's rapidly expanding traffic requirements, and at the same time will bind the 
nation into an ever more closely knit community. 



Traffic interchanges like this one on 
the Cross Island Parkway, New York, 
are proving to be one answer to 
safer and speedier handling of traf- 
fic in and around our cities* 

—Photograph courtesy of Triborough 
Bridge and Tunnel Authority and 
Skyyiews, Inc. 




sq. yd. of concrete stn 



cities 



population 
1950 



before 
1955 



durin 
195! 



5 cities with population 
of more than 1,000,000 



12 cities with population 

between 
500,000 and 1,000,000 



21 cities with population 

between 
250,000 and 500,000 



63 cities with population 

between 
100,000 and 250,000 



1°) Corrected total yardage. 



Chicago 3,620,962 

Detroit 1,849,568 

Los Angeles 1,970,358 

Baltimore 949,708 

Boston 790,863 

Buffalo 580,132 

Cincinnati 503,998 

Cleveland 914,808 

Houston 596,163 

Milwaukee ...... 637,392 

Akron 274,605 

Atlanta 331,314 

Birmingham 326,037 

Columbus 375,901 

Dallas . . . 434,462 

Denver 415,786 

Fort Worth ...... 278,778 

Indianapolis ..... 427,173 

Jersey City 299,017 

Kansas City, Mo. ■ , . 456,622 

Long Beach, Calif.. . . 250,767 

Albany, N.Y 134,995 

Allentown 106,756 

Austin 132,459 

Baton Rouge 125,629 

Bridgeport 158,709 

Cambridge 120,676 

Camden 124,055 

Canton 116,912 

Charlotte, N.C 134,042 

Chattanooga 131,041 

Corpus Christi .... 108,287 

Dayton 243,872 

Des Moines 177,965 

Duluth 104,511 

Elizabeth 112,817 

El Paso 130,485 

Erie 130,803 

Evansville 128,636 

Fall River, Mass. . . . 111,759 

Flint 163,143 

Fort Wayne 133,607 

Gary 133,911 

Grand Rapids .... 176,515 

Hartford, Conn 177,397 

Jacksonville 204,517 

Kansas City, Kan. . . 129,553 

Knoxville ...... 124,769 

Little Rock 102,213 

Miami 249,276 

Mobile 129,009 

Montgomery, Ala. . . 106,525 

Nashville 174,307 



16,915,219 
11,966,061 
26,630,309 



8,295,389 
947,180 
720,371 

5,800,429 

2,525,686 
17,974,287 

6,654,771 



424,380 
4,708,949 
2,006,520 

713,493 
11,561,636 

604, 1 30 

745,868 
3,680,169 

190,576 
6,269,984 
2,673,872 



1,096,427 
875,384 
775,470 
931,494 
8,400 
180,343 
529,503 
48,599 
830,359 
726,552 
590,300 

1,165,544 

2,589,642 

2,130,659 
576,512 
65,072 
521,822 
955,373 
145,534 
868,662 

1,354,964 
977,454 
939,574 
182,546 
704,948 

2,108,217 
697,573 

1,164,873 
445,081 

1,249,753 
215,109 
272,948 



127,71 
594,3< 
396,3! 



449,4: 
30,W 

48,4( 
391, 1< 

196 i; 

3,488,6: 
436,61 



43,9< 

122,8: 

2,21 

31,41 

2,35 1 ,9' 

1,7! 

43,8( 

607, 6( 

68,3: 
58,9: 



4,5( 
20,W 

30,5( 



11,2c 



105,7: 



90,3: 
148,1' 

436,9' 
90,8! 

1,0< 

3( 



19,5'. 



41, 2< 



27,8 



12,9* 



grand t< 



avement 




population 


sq.yd. of 


concrete streel 


t pavement 


total to 


before 


during 


total to 


2/31/55 


cities 


1950 


1955 


1955 

589,590 


12/31/55 


7,042,94 1 




7,891,957 


11,896,749 


12,486,339 


2,560,456 




2,071,605 


3,184,229 


57,486 


3,241,715 


7,026,666 




___ 


70,592,567 


1,765,550 


72,358,117 


8,744,820 


Minneapolis 


521,718 


1,638,132 


252,757 


1,890,889 


977,180 


New Orleans . . . . 


570,445 


2,864,693 


205,230 


3,069,923 


768,771 


Pittsburgh 


676,806 


2,558,749 


91,977 


2,650,726 


6,191,621 




856,796 


3,126,056 


132,370 


3,258,426 


2,721,864 


Washington 


802, 1 78 


7,002,835 


146,470 


7,149,305 


1,462,923 


totals 




60,108,578 


5,869,321 


65,977,899 


7,091,451 












468,378 


Louisville 


369,129 


1,103,179 


148,925 


1,252,104 


4,831,774 


Memphis. ...... 


396,000 


2,221,588 


2,817 


2,224,405 


2,008,800 


Newark . 


438,776 


693,834 





693,834 


744,905 


Omaha 


251,117 


2,738,085 


437,742 


3,175,827 


3,913,581 


Rochester, N.Y. . . . . . 


332,488 


470,769 





470,769 


605,880 


St. Paul ....... 


311,349 


1,423,267 


20,799 


1,444,066 


789,755 


San Antonio 


408,442 


707,310 





707,310 


4,287,777 


San Diego ...... 


334,387 


5,090,583 


229,740 


5,320,323 


190,576 


Seattle 


467,591 


1 3,653,23 l (a) 


351,400 


14,004,631 


6,338,314 


Toledo 


303,616 


2,963,766 


275,362 


3,239,128 


2,732,797 


totals 


— 


64,645, 1 89 


4,799,745 


69,444,934 


1,100,927 


New Bedford, Mass.. , 


109,033 


15,372 


_ — __ 


15,372 


895,384 


New Haven . „ . . . 


164,443 


436, 1 69 





436,169 


775,470 


Norfolk , 


213,513 


970,326 


39,308 


1,009,634 


961,994 


Oklahoma City ♦ . . 


243,504 


5,511,296 


610,420 


6,121,716 


8,400 


Pasadena 


104,577 


488,096 


8,930 


497,026 


180,343 


Paterson 


139,336 


228,009 


aw* ^— 


228,009 


529,503 


Peoria 


111,856 


2,189,082 


36,832 


2,225,914 


48,599 


Phoenix 


106,818 


994,899 





994,899 


841,564 


Providence . . . • 


248,674 


92,011 


— , 


92,011 


726,552 


Reading 


109,320 


597,390 





597,390 


590,300 


Richmond 


230,310 


855,284 


19,910 


875,194 


1,165,544 


Salt Lake City. . , . 


181,718 


568,638 


, — 


568,638 


2,695,364 


Savannah 


119,638 


1,085,356 


7,528 


1,092,884 


2,130,659 


Scranton ...... 


125,536 


106,593 


, — 


106,593 


576,512 


Shreveport 


127,206 


1,524,268 


229,796 


1,754,064 


65,072 


Sommerville, Mass. . 


102,254 


40,673 





40,673 


612,158 


South Bend .... 


115,911 


1,406,804 


67,055 


1,473,859 


1,103,520 


Spokane • 


161,721 


699,916 





699,916 


145,534 


Springfield, Mass. 


162,601 


144,286 





144,286 


1,305,657 


Syracuse 


220,583 


293,588 





293,588 


1,445,790 


Tacoma 


143,673 


1,701,080 


37,366 


1,738,446 


978,514 


Tampa. ...... 


124,681 


314,778 





314,778 


939,876 


Trenton 


1 28,009 


852,193 





852,193 


182,546 


Tulsa ....... 


1 82,740 


5,072,380 


754,143 


5,826,523 


704,948 


Utica ....... 


101,531 


288,792 





288,792 


2,127,745 


Waterbury, Conn. . . 


104,477 


267,000 


__ _ _ 


267,000 


697,573 


Wichita ...... 


168,279 


5,819,622 


463,779 


6,283,401 


1 ,206, 1 35 


Wilmington, Del. . . 


110,356 


351,228 


11,760 


362,988 


445,081 


Worcester, Mass. . . . 


201,885 


221,128 





221,128 


1,277,643 


Yonkers 


152,798 


462,977 





462,977 


215,109 


Youngstown .... 


168,330 


979, 1 70 


80,229 


1,059,399 


258,900 


totals 





60,503,095 


3,408,281 


63,911,376 



awards in 101 cities of more than 100,000 population 



255,849,429 15,842,897 271,692,326 



4o 



* 



early concrete pavements 



The first concrete pavement in North America was an 8-ft. strip 
laid in Bellefontaine. Ohio, in 1891. The first extensive use of concrete paving in 
North America was in Canada. In 1907, before any other community had built 
more than a block or two, more than two miles was laid in Windsor, Ont. In 1909. 
the first mile of concrete road in the United States was built in Wayne County. Mich. 



Many early concrete streets throughout the United States are still giving excellent service— even 
under today's much heavier loads and traffic. Top-This street on the public square in Bellefontaine, 
Ohio, was built in 1893— two years after the first concrete pavement was laid in the same city. The 
pavement, shown os it looked in 1921 (left) and 1953, is still giving good service after more than 
60 years of increasingly heavy traffic. Center— Main St., De Soto, Mo., built in 1926, as it looked in 
1927 and 1952. Bottom-Pierce Ave. at East State St., Camden, N.J., as it looked in 1927 and 1954. 




^** 






t •• 




































X 



highway research 



Scientific research has supplanted guesswork in highway build- 
ing. Every factor affecting the materials, construction methods, present and future 
use, maintenance and financing of a highway is carefully studied before the high- 
way engineer is ready to start construction. Thus the motorist now gets a more 
adequate return in improved highways for his gasoline tax and license fees. 

It is now recognized that roads, once regarded as mere routes cleared for over- 
land passage from one place to another, require careful design in the same sense 
as does a bridge or building. If roads are to render long and economical service, 
they must be designed and paved for the weights and densities of the traffic the\ 
are to sustain. Studies of the effects of the volume and weight of postwar traffic 
reveal the importance not only of the structural nature of the pavement itself, but 
also of the subgrade. 

Nearlv all state highway departments maintain well-equipped research and test- 
ing laboratories. Manx colleges and universities also carry on highway transpor- 
tation research projects. 




Above — An important part of highway re- 
search is the study of the effects of various 
types of traffic on pavements and subgrades. 
Weighted trucks were used to subject the 
Maryland Test Road to a large volume of 
heavy, accelerated test traffic. Below— A por- 
tion of a concrete paving slab is removed 
for further tests from a section of the Mary- 
land Test Rood. 



hitter 'mfyt ii fhu 



•*•! f 



mmlmr 






mm^M 



imcm change* due to neov/ retf 
on the to?e% Itg »oo. I / 

A tmoll *heel center ♦ 
•I device. rrrjftUd rhe length o •• 
MM Qiwl feco/ded eg .Jo >♦ 

the ktrfbii »* a f «#*» f * rm '• ,<§ 




\ in hltftlWI rMftif h * tl 



toil H Ii * 

1 

|| . I • I II I - I 1 I I I I 

i n^fn t I i»i I r • 1 1 

• ■ , I'th 

ttr * i ill »•* 



























# r 












■ \ 



1 ■ 









turn a mnliurii tin u/h wi< > ' 

V% .1 N f ) 






v\ id l |frt at t hi 

miiMntnil «*t ilir«r huiuln l« »«| i 

•I |»U \uk\ 

in.- i . .ill. tad p-h ^ 

rtilf .mini ititii i tf I *♦• r p4lgt l- 

n I 

It Invito 



Y,t 






» i« i »'il a* .i 












j 



,1 



lli> 4t 



■ 



1. 






























ft* I 



























Mu 






i; , I Ml) ,. lb oA i '** 

smm< i in I of 1 I 

I ItVMI 

* ii nn«tti *iuJ il I 

I! . U rhr Vmrn.tt I 
VUiuitut on. *ml 1 1 1. I 

of the* lr»t hi 
















v 










th 
















t, 



MM 



- 



, t 






V.I 



. 



L. 







of thr Vmrr •. i V - 



• 











1 



■ew I 












ui, n 



nl 



Mo on* 

NotabU 



state 



number 

of years 

covered 

by state 

records 



Arizona 
Connecticut 
Florida 
Illinois . 






Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 



Maine . . . 

Massachusetts 

Missouri 

Nebraska 



Nevada 
New Hompih 
New Jersey 
New Yor> 



Ohio 
Oregon 
Pennsylvania 
Rhode Island 



South Dakota 

Tennessee 

T« > os 
Wyoming 



20 
11 
26 
32 



25-9/12 

25 

23 

14 



17 

21 
24 
23 



25-7/12 
19 
26 
30 



27-6/12 
30 
10 
33 



24 
16 
24 

21 



total miles in 
vice, 24 states 



overage- surface 
maintenance 
costs per mile 



22 8 



per year 



New Me*«co 

Utoh 
Washington 

West Virginia 






5 

12 
19 
11 



total mil** 



ovt-rog* toil per mile 




U.S.B.P.R. Class J 



Miles in 

service in 

last mainl. 

period 



93.6 

1,122.0 

519.4 

11,713.3 



1,807.3 

5,818.2 

1,171.2 

958.4 



Weighted 
over, moint 
cost per n~ 

per year 



$180.81 

200.93 

61.77 

159.72 



131.6 

503.9 

3,763.4 

1,234.8 



95.57 
128.97 
172.01 
240.15 



149.79 
118.90 
1 89.02 
115.23 



245.3 

1,458.4 
4,451.8 



1,392.6 

310.0 

4,203.4 

261.0 



433.5 
1,3315 

4,153.7 



103.70 
188.95 
272.10 
175.29 



206.45 
214.25 
25624 

85.01 



•8.88 

156.25 
11861 
125.24 



47, 1 50.2 



$161.99 



53.4 

325.0 
1496 2 
1,045.1 



68.45 

100.95 

125 04 

15645 



49,670.0 



BITUMINOUS CONCRETE BITUMINOUS CONCR 
RIGID BASE FLEXIBLE BASE 



U.S.B.P.R. Class I U.S.B.P.R. Class 



Miles in 

service in 

last maint 

period 



Weighted 

aver, maint. 

cost per mile 

per veer 



Miles in 
service in 
last maint 

period 



Weight' 
aver, n 
cost per r 

per yei 



121.0 



1,559.1 



$ 

469.80 

1 30 60 



28.1 $1308 



719.5 



517.3 



194.29 



28093 



1.968.9 



182 



224 4 

458 4 



176< 
105.! 



139.6 



190.67 



165 8 
709 



609 11 
325.86 



529 

113.3 

500 



213 fi 
919 6 

485 1 



1,972.9 



16041 



815 
4,312.3 



360.4 
170.3 



195.7 
1,662 1 



113 52 
235 41 



297.0 

4,474.1 



144 7 
192 5 



7,123 9 



12.794.4 



$219 52 



$22082 



392 6 

1319 

24 8 

446 I 



102 S 
106.C 
232.1 
238! 



7.123.9 



13.789 8 




$219.52 



$21922 



IITUMINOUS CONCRETE 
(1610 AND FLEX. BASE 


MIXED BITUMINOUS 
SURFACES 


BITUMINOUS MACADAM 


GRAVEL 


OR STONE 


BITUMINOUS 
SURFACE TREATED 


U.S.B.P.R. 


Class 1 


U.S.B.P.R. 


Class G 


U.S.B.P.R. 


Class H 


U.S.B.P.R. 


Class E 


U.S.B.P.R. 


Class F 


Miles in 

service in 

last main*. 

period 


Weighted 
aver, maint. 
cost per mile 

per year 


Miles in 
service in 
last maint. 

period 


Weighted 
aver, maint. 
cost per mile 

per year 


Miles in 

service in 

last maint. 

period 


Weighted 

aver, maint. 

cost per mile 

per year 


Miles in 

service in 

last maint. 

period 


Weighted 
aver, maint. 
cost per mile 
per year 


Miles in 

service in 

last maint. 

period 


Weighted 

aver maint. 

cost per mile 

per year 


1 ,094.4 


$ 

58.15 


813.5 
1,325.0 
3,119.2 


$252.81 

271.32 

77.18 


239.0 
21.5 


244.97 
195.39 


195.2 
163.9 


$282.06 
166.95 


2,504.9 
387.0 

4,619.9 
467.6 


$ 256.87 
469.64 
106.03 
163.40 


1,602.3 
427.7 


97.28 
180.58 

185.62 


2,705.3 

2,006.5 
5,601.0 

285.0 
3,625.2 


509.69 

453.74 
350.97 

198.93 
507.66 


34.7 
71.5 


274.58 
256.70 


107.8 
1,756.1 

806.2 
5,482.6 


626.99 

382.58 
327.92 
447.70 


146.5 
1,175.5 
4,521.7 

922.6 


5 1 4. 1 4 
752.58 
620.22 
475.74 


522.0 


470.9 

1,396.1 

272.5 


233.88 
121.77 
265.02 


892.0 
5,011.7 


188.78 
330.36 


7,568.7 
28.1 

3,051.0 


420 41 
450.77 

318.76 








3,474.3 
2,415.6 


91.62 
283.97 


270.0 

17.8 

1,439.9 


187.05 
1,783.67 

467.59 


289.8 
109.7 

512.8 


173.85 
201.76 

667.64 

493.19 
346.05 
111.12 


3,038.2 
63.9 
12.5 

1,313.2 

2,280.0 


398.45 

1,242.15 

414.71 


4,270.0 
145.5 


299.74 
227.06 


7,928.9 
1,758.2 


545.84 
152.49 


376.4 
1,276.0 

336.5 


321.60 
452.30 

95.13 


1,140.4 
129.0 
125.4 


547.97 
603.89 





062.7 


3,532.6 447.69 

29,307.3 181.10 
4,878.1 149.51 

72,775.7 


144.8 


1 20.77 


2,248.6 
440.4 
123.7 


278.73 
306.65 
306.44 


2,819.6 


331.91 


8,1 


6,367.6 


19,535.3 


34,920.9 



$22992 



$285.28 



$352.04 



$373.73 



$394.20 



8,062.7 



$229.92 



2,307.6 184.32 



75,083.3 



$284.12 



1.063-0 

1,320.7 

254.4 

436.6 



113.25 
198.31 
316.47 
151.98 



9,442.3 



$348.76 



5.0 



665.9 



186.29 



265.12 



20,206.2 



$364.06 



609.4 


140.28 


1,247.6 


125.26 


2,277.2 


216.81 


1,709.3 


286.87 


40,764.4 



$384.89 



* 












Freeways are controlled-access highways of four or more lanes 
on which opposing traffic streams are separated by a median strip and cross-traffic 
is eliminated by grade separations. Constructed for through traffic, they generally 
exclude pedestrians and connect with important arterials by traffic interchanges 
that have acceleration and deceleration lanes. Their purpose is to facilitate the 
movement of heavy volumes of traffic between, through and around cities— and to 
do it safely. Needed in both rural and urban areas, they are of particular value 
as time* and life-savers in metropolitan districts. 

The case for freeways and expressways can be simply put: without them the 
American transportation system will be strangled by twentieth-century traffic 
attempting to move on nineteenth-century roads and streets. Today in the business 
districts of many of our modern cities, motorists move at a pace slower than that 
of the horse and buegv which 40 vears ago traveled the same route. 




Traffic bottlenecks in our overcrowd 
ed cities are being relieved or elimi 
noted by modern concrete express 
ways like this one in Dallas, Texas 




Unobstructed view and o median strip that separates opposing traffic are important safety precautions 
exemplified in the New York Thruway. 



While the need for freeways is more dramatically demonstrated by traffic con- 
gestion in the larger cities, these highways are no less a necessit\ on many danger- 
ously overcrowded routes between cities. It has been amply proven that multilane 
facilities not only expedite intercity movement of people and commodities but 

also reduce accidents. 

According to the American Association of State Highway Officials, a divided 
highway is needed when traffic reaches 700 vehicles per hour. 

Multilane highways are not designed on the basis of present needs alone; the\ 
are built to carry traffic of the future as well. During the period 1950—1955, travel 
increased by more than 25 billion vehicle-miles per year. Current traffic of 60«» 
billion vehicle-miles per year is expected to increase to approximately 700 billion 

per year by 1960. 

A high percentage of traffic is concentrated on a relatively small mileage of 
roads and streets. For these heavily traveled routes, the safest, most durable pave- 
ment is needed. A modern, heavy-duty concrete pavement will last 50 years— more 
than twice as long as any other type. And state highway department records show 
that the cost of maintaining concrete pavement is from 26 to 58 per cent less than 

for other types. (See page 50.) 

Safety is designed into freeways by provisions for long sight distances, easy 
curves, divided lanes and grade separations. The pavement type is also of great 
importance. The uniformly high skid-resistance of concrete, wet or dry, and its 
nighttime visibility, even surface and low crown are built-in safety features that 
have contributed to its use for 76 per cent of all urban and 71 per cent of all 
rural freeways. 

53 



•# 



highway financing 









The federal government is vitally interested both in a modern, 
coordinated highway network for interstate commerce and for national defense 
I and in adequate secondary roads. It has provided federal aid since 1916 to build 

I primary state highway systems, connected at state borders to form an integrated 

I network of national highways. 

Pattern of The modern concept of federal aid for highways began with the Federal-Aid Road 
Federal Aid Act of 1916, which established the framework within which federal aid has since 
Established b( . en af ] m j„i*tered. This Act required the federal government to cooperate with 

the state highwa\ departments; set up a formula for apportioning federal funds 
<n) the basis of area, population and mileage of rural delivery routes; and required 
states to match federal funds on a 50-50 basis. The 1916 Act also established the 
Office of Public Roads to administer federal funds. 

Tii- Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1921 required all states to designate a federal- 
aid system, to consist of not more than 7 per cent of their rural highway mileage. 
Federal-aid funds were to be expended only on these roads, the most important 

in each state. 

Other extensions of the original Federal-Aid Act provided matching funds in 
varving amount- for each fiscal year through 1933. Emergency relief grants were 
made for highway construction during the depression \ears of fiscal 1933, 1934 

and L935. 

ltcgular federal-aid authorizations were resumed in 1936 and have continued 

without interruption except for the war years of 1944 and 1945. and the year 
1949. The Act of 1944, passed after careful study by Congress, which authorized 
funds for the fir-i thn postwar years (1946-1948). contained a number of new 
and important provisions. It (ailed for designation of a federal-aid secondary 
system. For the first time it authorized funds separaleK for urban extensions of 
the primary system and the secondary system. It called for designation of a 
10,000-mile s\stem of the mo-l important and heavib traveled roads in the i <>untr\ 
to be known as the National System of Interstate Highways. Final adoption of 
this system was approved in the Act of 1947. 

Th< rowing importance of the interstat- system wee recognized in the Acts of 
1950 and 1952. The 1950 Act permitted states <>r their politic I subdivisions to 
emplo\ federal-aid funds for retirement of bond issues u^ed to construct projects 
on the interstate system as well as on the federal-aid primary and urban systems. 
The 1952 Act for the first time authorized federal funds specifically for the inter- 
state s\ Mem. 

54 






The growing inadequacy of our highways was recognized in the Act of 1954, 
which raised interstate system funds from $25 to $175 million and substantially 
increased funds for other systems. The Act also changed the formula for appor- 
tionment of interstate system money to place more emphasis on population. 

The Act of 1956 ranks as one of the most important in the 40-year history of Act of 
federal aid to highways. It forms the backbone of the largest federal-state construe- 1 °56 
tion program yet undertaken. 

Major emphasis in the Act of 1956 is on the interstate system. The Act: 
—changed the name of this heavy-duty network to the National System of Inter- 
state and Defense Highways; 
—changed the matching provisions for this system by increasing the federal 

share of costs to 90 per cent, with 10 per cent to be paid by the states; 
—provided for a 13-year federal-state program to bring the interstate system up 
to acceptable standards of adequacy and authorized federal outlays of $24.8 
billion over the period 1957-1969 for this purpose. 



federal aid for highways, 1917-1969 authorizations for fiscal years< a) e 



ear 




Bureau of Public Roads, U.S. Department of Commerce 



(a) The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 authorized appropriations through 1969 for the interstate 
system only. Appropriations for other systems were made for the normal two-year period. 



isometric flow chart of the manufacture of portland cement 







56 



/l 



V 



P, 



:<v 









i?^ 



SLURRY 
PUMP 



A&fc 






-^ 




CLAY 
WASH MILL 



tf 



r 



&ROCK 
)RYER 



vy> 




SLURRY 
FEEDER 




VIBRATING 
SCREEN 




TUBE 
MILL 



?l 






• I 





DUMP 
TRUCK 



CLAY 
PIT 



CLAY 
SLURRY 
STORAGE 
BASIN 

SLURRY 
PUMP 




POWER 
SHOVEL 



BALL 
MILL 



PROPORTIONING ^ 
EQUIPMENT ^jC^ 

WAT E R 

ADDED 




FUEL 

PULVERIZED COAL, 
OIL OR GAS 



Y MIXIf 
BLENDING 



RAIL DELIVERY OF 
RON ORE. SLAG. 
SILICA SAND. 
GYPSUM 
EvFUEL 



«**] SLURRY 



OFFICE Ev 
LABORATORY 



SAFETY FLAG &. 
SAFETY TROPHY 



57 



States 

Outlaw 

Diversion 



This Act also added SI billion to the $175 million already authorized by the 
Act of 1954 for the interstate system in the fiscal year 1957 and increased primary 
and urban system funds for that year by a total of $125 million. 

Interstate system funds authorized under the Act of 1956 rise to S2.2 billion in 
fiscal 1960 and remain at this level until fiscal 1968. In that year they drop to 
$1.5 billion, and in fiscal 1969, the last year of the program, to $1,025 billion. 

In some states. mone\ collected in taxes from motorists is being diverted from 
highways to other uses within the state-and the highways are suffering accord- 
ingly. Between $75 and $100 million of these funds is being diverted from high- 
wavs vearlv. according to the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads. 

Diversion was recognized as a menace in 1934 with the passage by Congress 
of the Havden-Cartwright Road Act. This provided that one-third of federal road 
funds could be withheld from any state that diverted more money than it was 
diverting when the Act became effecthe. 

Agreeing with the Hayden-Cartwright Act's principles. 24 states have since 
adopted constitutional amendments outlawing all diversion of highway revenues. 
The states are Alabama. Arizona. California. Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, 
Kansas, Kentuck\ . Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan. Minnesota. Missouri, Nevada, 
Vw Hampshire, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Penns\ 1\ ania. South Dakota. 
Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming. 

In addition, in Texas a constitutional amendment prohibits the nonhighway 
use of all motor-vehicle license fees and 75 per cent of motor-fuel taxes. 




•fc 



highway safety 



Vehicle accidents in the United States in 1955 caused 38,300 
deaths and 1,350,000 personal injuries according to the National Safety Council. 
These accidents have resulted in a direct economic loss of $4.7 billion. 

The number of traffic fatalities in 1955 has been exceeded only in 1941, when 
39.969 people died. A study by the Automobile Manufacturers Association indi- 
cates that inadequate highways now cost U.S. motorists Si. 7 billion yearly in 
traffic accidents that would not occur if needed road improvements were made: 
$1.8 billion yearly in time losses for commercial vehicles with paid drivers; $1,3 
billion yearly in wasted gasoline and extra wear on brakes and tires due to traffic 
delays; and $500 million yearly in additional vehicle-operating costs on dirt and 
gravel roads that carry sufficient traffic to merit improved surfacing. 

In a message to Congress on highway needs, President Eisenhower pointed 
to estimates by highway authorities that this cost penalty is about one cent per 
travel mile, or more than $5 billion a year. 

Besides tightening enforcement of traffic laws and extending driver education, 
traffic experts are cooperating with highway authorities in an effort to reduce 
accidents by a careful survey of the physical defects of roads, and by the scien- 
tific application of these findings to the correction of road factors that contribute 

to accidents. 

Notable among the various national groups organized to combat traffic acci- 
dents is the President's Highway Safety Conference, which offers a comprehen- 



Left— Most fatal accidents occur at 
night. These photographs taken on 
the same night with identical camera 
settings and under identical condi- 
tions display graphically the greater 
light-reflectance and visibility of light- 
colored concrete pavement. 



Right— Traffic is unhampered and 
crossing at grade is completely elim- 
inated by this modern four-level con- 
crete highway separation structure 
in downtown Los Angeles. 




I sive. w orkable approach to the safety problem. This organization has met annually 

I since 1947 to map out yearly campaigns against America's most lethal domestic 

| enemy-highway accidents. At the 1947 meeting, a program for action was 

I adopted, to be based on adequate accident records, proper laws and ordinances, 

education, enforcement, engineering, motor-vehicle administration, public infor- 
mation and public support. The Conference emphasized the need to build high- 
ways as nearly accident-proof as possible as a vital step toward highway safety. 

I Automotive The Automotive Safety Foundation also has done much to further the cause of 

Safety traffic safety. Originally set up to deal only with automotive safety, the Foundation 
HI Foundation expanded its activities during the early part of World War II to include coopera- 
tion in the conducting of publicly financed highway planning and research. Much 
statistical material and many valuable traffic studies have been sponsored by this 
organization. 

The Foundation is supported jointly by motor-vehicle manufacturers, parts 
and accessories manufacturers, rubber-tire manufacturers, petroleum companies 
and the Portland Cement Association. 

Another group working in the same direction is the National Safety Council, 
which gathers and distributes information regarding the causes of all classes of 
accidents and the best methods of preventing them. The gist of its findings is 
issued annually in its official publication, Accident Facts. 

Accident The Bureau of Public Roads is cooperating with all the states to set up a system 

Rating of accident reporting that will help to determine the extent to which the physical 

Helps coition of roads contributes to accidents. Some states are making progress 

along this line b\ giving ratings to accident-prone locations and then applying 
engineering techniques to eliminate the conditions that make the location danger- 
ous. This procedure, engineers point out. gets quick results. With the elimination 
of recognized hazards at specific points, the kinds of accidents to which the dan- 
ger spots contributed are not likely to be repeated. 

Engineers now have the facts needed to build safe highways. One of the im- 
portant reasons accident rates are still high is that not enough safe highways have 
been built. Limited funds have kept many dangerous highways from being trans- 
formed by good design and construction into safe ones. 
I For example, on comparative 43-mile sections of the Boston Post Road and 

the Merritt and Wilbur Cross parkways, a recent report of the Division of High- 
way Control of Connecticut points out that motorists on the parkways have a 
nearly three times better chance of avoiding fatal accidents than motorists on the 
Post Road. Over a nine-year period, the death rate on the parkway test section 
was 3.5 per 100 million vehicle-miles as compared with 9.4 on the Post Road. 

The best way to achieve safety in roads is to build safety in. Concrete, because 
of its gritty -urface texture, its low crown and its far better nighttime visibility, 
contributes to maximum highway safety dav and night. And it stays safe longer 
than other types of pavements. 

60 



•fc 





ii 






The year 1955 marked the twentieth anniversary of the first 
scientifically controlled soil-cement road built in the I riited States. This road, a 
1^/2 -mile stretch of experimental pavement near Johnsonville, S.C., is still satis- 
factorily carrying traffic, which has increased far beyond the amount expected 
when the road was built. 

Soil-cement is a tightly compacted mixture of soil or roadwu\ material, port- 
land ennent and water, that forms a strong, durable pavement base as the cement 
hardens the soil. A bituminous surface is placed on the ^oil-cement base to com- 
plete the pavement. 

Mixing soil and portland cement together to make a pavement I *<• wa> a 
re\olutionar\ idea to man) engineers in L935. IJui it proved t<» be a method- 
long -ought after — of stabilizing roadway soils to produce a truU satisfactorj 
low -cost pavement. 

Now soil-cement is widely usrd to |»a\e n»acls, residential streets, air|mrl- and 
parking areas. Because of its success in these field-, its area of use has been 
expanded to include canal and ditch lining-, dam facings, and subbases for con- 
Crete pavement. 

Soil-cement was developed after years of research and engineering study. I »rl\ 

work was done b\ the >tate highvvav departments of Ohio. Texas, Iowa. South 

Dakota. California and South Carolina. Experiments with soil-cemenl mixture 

h\ the South (Carolina Highwav Department produced parti* ularl\ encouraging 



Developed 
by PCA 
Engineers 



Adams County, Wis., road, paved with soil-cement in 1936, is still in excellent condition Block cut 
from pavement in 1954 (right) had a compressive strength of 2,800 psi as compared with a 7-day 
strength of 640 psi when the road was built. 





results that led the Portland Cement Association to undertake an extensive re- 
search program, starting in 1935. 

The objective of the program was to develop an adequate paving material with 
a cost low enough to fit the requirements of roads and streets on which the volume 
of traffic was too small to justify use of concrete pavement or for which available 
construction funds were limited. 

In 1938 the PCA won the American Trade Association Executives' Award for 
its work in further development of soil-cement. The award is made annually to 
the trade association that has rendered the most outstanding service to its indus- 
try, to industry as a whole and to the public. 






Properties 

of 
Soil- 
Cement 



: 



Soil-cement generally is built from soil on or near the paving site. Old, deterio- 
rated granular-base materials can also be used. Only cement and water need be 
hauled in. 

Because soil-cement is compacted tightly during construction, it does not 
und down under traffic or develop soft spots or chuck holes. It is capable oi 
bridging over localized weak subgrade areas and is highh resistant to deteriora 
tion caused b\ moisture and weather. 

Well-known pavement-design methods used by several state highway depart 
ments require thicknesses of soil-cement that are one-third to one-half less thai 
the required thicknesses of granular bases carrying the same traffic load over tht 
same subgrade. This means that soil-cement is 50 to 100 per cent stronger incr 
for inch than other low-cost pavements. 



Use of 
Soil- 
Cement 



At the beginning of 1956. more than 160 million sq.yd. of soil-cement was ir 
service in the United States, including 8.500 miles of roads and 2.700 miles o: 
-treets in some 40(J cities, towns and villages. The soil-cement used in 156 air 



62 



ports — more than 23 million sq.yd. — is equivalent to nearly 2,000 miles of 20-ft. 
wide highway. One city, San Diego, Calif., has more than 200 miles of soil-cement 
streets and another, Baton Rouge, La,, has more than 175 miles. 

California, one of the largest users among the states, had built up to January 
1956 a total of 56 million sq.yd of soil-cement— or the equivalent of 4,700 miles 
of 20-ft. wide highway. 



The success of soil-cement construction is assured when three basic requirements 
are satisfied. They are adequate cement content, proper moisture content and ade- 
quate compaction. These requirements are established by simple tests that have 
been adopted as standards by the American Society of Testing Materials, the 
American Association of State Highway Officials and the American Standards 
Association. Recently the tests have been further simplified as a result of con- 
tinued research by the Portland Cement Association. 



Tests 

Assure 

Quality 



The basic steps in soil-cement construction are spreading cement, mixing and 
compacting; After the roadway has been shaped to grade and the soil loosened, 
the required amount of cement is spread. Cement and the necessary amount of 
water are thoroughly mixed with the soil by means of a traveling mixing machine 
or by rotary mixers. 

The mixed material is compacted by rollers, shaped to the proper contour and 
again rolled to obtain a smooth finish. A bituminous material is sprayed on the 
soil-cement soon after finishing to seal in moisture needed for cement hydration. 
The pavement is then completed by the addition of a bituminous surface. 

Highly efficient machinery now available for soil-cement construction has en- 
abled an even greater reduction of its cost through mass production. Construction 
of a half-mile to a mile of soil-cement a day is common on average-sized projects. 



Simple 

to 

Construct 



Three steps of soil-cement construction are shown here. In background a mixing machine blends soil, 
cement and water. In right foreground, a sheepsfoot roller gives the mixture its initial compaction. 
Motor grader at left smooths mixture prior to further compaction. 







*.V 




state 


roads 


streets 


airports 


misc. 


total 


Alabama . . * 


258,549 


743,731 


__ _ — 


350,864 


1,353,144 


Arizona . . • 


291,290 


4,430 





22, 1 76 


317,896 


1 Arkansas . . . 


807,898 


472,116 


227,499 





1,507,513 


1 California . . . 


. 41,607,018 


9,572,452 


2,824,462 


1,824,395 


55,828,327 


1 Colorado . . . 


557,960 


69,330 


198,755 


16,800 


842,845 


1 Connecticut . . 


1,777 


13,668 


86,224 


10,000 


1 1 1 ,669 


1 Delaware . . . 


42,472 


_ 





_ __ _ 


42,472 


1 Dist. of Columbia 


W^— — — m^ 


5,127 





71,939 


77,066 


1 Florida .... 


305,141 


119,388 


2,022,286 


361,453 


2,808,268 


1 Georgia ■ . . 


. 2,457,156 


4,530,116 


3,165,843 


8,400 


10,161,515 


1 Idaho . * . . 


451,900 


72,140 


_ — — 





524,040 


1 Illinois ... * 


1,467,967 


822,585 


132,895 


1 1 4,627 


2,538,074 


1 Indiana ... . 


277,850 


425,105 


892,579 


280 


1,595,814 


1 Iowa 


767,862 


216,995 


1,114,143 


10,000 


2, 1 09,000 


1 Kansas ... • 


. 1,264,931 


38,944 


462,076 


50,500 


1,816,451 


1 Kentucky . . . 


. 1,286,707 


26,900 


74,004 


106,222 


1,493,833 


• 

1 Louisiana . . . 


. 10,588,841 


6,515,811 


573,316 


10,301 


17,688,269 


1 Maine .... 


10,574 


5,700 


819,999 





836,273 


1 Maryland . . . 


132,817 


178,110 


92,223 


21,550 


424,700 


1 Massachusetts . 


1 0,000 


236,435 


860,174 


21,300 


1 , 1 27,909 


Michigan . . . 


381,346 


30,721 


162,995 


3,500 


578,562 


1 Minnesota . . 


1,541,979 


112,573 


694,841 


1,400 


2,350,793 


Mississippi . . 


1,888,601 


851,804 


201,864 


260,200 


3,202,469 


1 Missouri . « . 


. 1,068,979 


75,174 


191,130 


4,000 


1,339,283 


1 Montana . . . 





3,000 


__ __ 


— 


3,000 


1 Nebraska . . . 


1,272,465 


6,295 


70,395 


6,000 


1,355,155 


1 Nevada . . . 


182,300 


22,200 


73,330 


350,000 


627,830 


1 New Hampshire 





__ 





— 


— — 


1 New Jersey . . 


457,906 


518,178 


202,730 


59,300 


1,238,114 


1 New Mexico 


298,815 


96,570 


743,100 


15,950 


1,154,435 


1 New York . . . 


270,548 


1 1 4,048 


388,204 


101,151 


873,95 1 


1 North Carolina . 


. 10,240,530 


633,737 


365,614 


12,048 


11,251,929 


1 North Dakota . 


221,874 


116,307 


280,965 


2,280 


621,426 


1 Ohio 


1,743,122 


115,762 


2,100 


97,070 


1,958,054 


1 Oklahoma. 


810,683 


398,825 


322,536 


10,683 


1,542,727 


1 Oregon .... 


2,444 


____ 


. — 


__ 


2,444 


1 Pennsylvania 


1,459,274 


27,436 


192,500 





1,679,210 


1 Rhode Island 


8,100 


28,450 


70,700 


10,100 


117,350 


1 South Dakota 


— 








_ 


— — _ 


1 South Carolina . 


1,316,629 


436,230 


1,351,155 


10,073 


3,114,087 


1 Tennessee . . 


. 1,889,818 


362,156 


135,658 


39,497 


2,427,129 


1 Texas , . . . 


. 5,818,840 


2,423,284 


2,814,865 


362,795 


11,419,784 


1 Utah 


533,910 


7,700 





54,126 


595,736 


1 Vermont . . . 


59,552 


28,100 





3,400 


91,052 


1 Virginia . . . 


. 2,795,130 


1,324,208 


27 r 207 


157,115 


4,303,660 


1 Washington . . 


. 2,109,935 


53,356 


1,894,715 


226,000 


4,284,006 


1 West Virginia 


331,760 


_ 


— ^— _ 





331,760 


1 Wisconsin . . . 


521,571 


394,614 


13,250 


9,626 


939,061 


1 Wyoming . . . 


369,700 


119,300 


16,000 





505,000 


1 Alaska . . . « 


42,240 




— ■ _ — 


— — ^ 


42,240 


1 totals . . . 


.100,226,761 


32,369,111 


23,762,332 


4,797,121 


161,155,325 



* 



concrete for airports 



Safe, profitable air operations require efficient ground facilities 
to receive, dispatch and service aircraft. The problems of providing adequate 
airport facilities have been materially increased since World War II by the birth 
of the jet age. Concrete, however, has more than kept pace with this latest major 
development in aviation— the use of jet planes by the military and their expected 
early extension into the commercial airline field. Concrete is not affected by the 
unburned jet fuel spilled on the pavement or by the terrific heat, blast effect or 
high-pressure tires characteristic of jet-plane operation. Also, concrete's freedom 
from loose chips and stones that "kick up" and injure passengers or aircraft be- 
comes even more important in the case of a jet, since the presence of foreign par- 
ticles in the engine may cause serious damage. 

The first concrete airport pavement in the United States was built at the Ford 
Airport, Dearborn, Mich., in 1927, and the first municipal airport use of concrete 
pavement was in Glendale, Calif., in 1929. Twenty-nine years later, from this 
modest beginning had grown more than 293 million sq.yd. of concrete runways, 
taxiways and aprons in service at some 820 civil and military airports in the 

United States. 

The largest single runway in the world today in terms of total amount of con- 
crete used is at Edwards Air Force Base, Muroc, Calif. Designed to handle aircraft 



First 

Concrete 
Airport 
in 1927 



Concrete runways and aprons can be designed for the heaviest wheel loads of modern aircraft. Con- 
crete also meets the challenge of varying exposure conditions. 





Concrete is the only paving material 
that successfully withstands the heat, 
blast and spilled fuel of jet planes. 
For this reason it is widely used for 
military and naval airfields, and for 
installations at aircraft manufactur- 
ing plants, such as this one at Peco- 
nic River, N.Y. The wasp-waist plane 
is the F9F-9, Navy fighter designed 
to crash the sound barrier. 



heavier than any used toda\ . this runway is more than 15.000 ft. (or nearly three 
miles) in length, 300 ft. wide, and 16 to 18 in, thick. 

The New York International Airport (Idlewildl is one of the world's largest 
and most modern civil airports. This huge new airport has seven concrete run- 
ways totaling 10 miles— and each runwa\ is 200 ft. wide by 12 in. thick, con- 
structed to accommodate aircraft up to 300.000 lb. Translated into terms of high- 
wax pavement, the concrete used in the runways alone at Idlewild would be 
sufficient to build a highway 22 ft. wide and 8 in. thick from Philadelphia to 
Washington. D.C., a distance of about 140 miles. 

McConnell Air Force Base in Wichita, Kan., has the greatest area of concrete 
pavement of any airport in the United States— 3,750,000 sq.yd. Also over the two 
million mark in square \ards of concrete pavement are Barksdale Air Force 
Base. Slireveport. La.: Car-well Air Force Base, Fort Worth. Texas: Edward- 
Air Force Base. Muroc. Calif. : Forbes Air Force Base, Topeka. Kan. : Kelly Field, 
San Antonio. Texas: Lake Charles Air Force Base, Lake Charles. La.; Larson 
Air Force Base. Moses Lake. Wash.: Lincoln Air Force Base, Lincoln, Nek; 
Lockbourne Air Force Base. Lorkbourne. Ohio: Patuxent River Naval Air Sta* 

tion, Cedar Point. Md.: Sraok\ Hill Air Force Base. Salina. Kan.: Tulsa Municipal 
Airport, Tulsa, Okla.: and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. 



66 



There are many reasons for the rapid growth and popularity of the use of con- 
crete in airport installations. Chief among them is concrete's contribution to 
safety. In any airport the most vital ground installation is the runway. From the 
time the wheels of a landing aircraft first touch the runway until the ship again 
becomes airborne, the runways must insure safe, skid-free landings, easy take-offs 
and strength to sustain tremendous loads. 

Safety in landing is largely dependent on good runway visibility. The light 
color of concrete runways makes them easily visible to the pilot, especially at 
night, and is an important element in effective, economical lighting. Concrete 
runways are also skid-resistant, and their low crown reduces the tendency of an 
aircraft to veer toward the runway edge. 

Runway strips, taxiways and aprons must sustain gross plane weights of more 
than 500,000 lb. The high compressive and beam strength of concrete makes it 
physically and economically desirable on subgrades of either low or high bear- 
ing power. 

Concrete pavements for aprons, taxiways and runway ends can be designed to 
carry the heaviest planes moving slowly or standing still with engines "revving 
up" prior to take-off. 

The Federal Airport Act of 1946 allocated $500 million to the states to be dis- 
bursed over a seven-year period. Under the terms of this Act, the federal govern- 
ment will provide financial aid up to 50 per cent of the cost of civilian airport 
construction. This fund is administered by the Civil Aeronautics Authority — 
three-fourths of it in accordance with a formula prescribed in the Federal Airport 
Act, the other quarter at the discretion of CAA officials. This federal aid applies 
only in the initial construction of an airport; it is stipulated that maintenance is 
the obligation of the sponsoring municipality or organization. 

The 1946 Act was scheduled to expire on June 20, 1953. However, in Septem- 
ber 1950, Congress extended the time limit for completion of the Federal Airport 
Art program for an additional five years, moving the expiration date to 1958. 



Concrete 
Contributes 
to Safety 



Federal 

Aid 

Given 



Unretouched aerial photograph of 
Lambert Field, St. Louis, Mo., shows 
the high visibility of concrete — an 
important factor in safe landings, 
particularly in inclement weather. 
— Photograph by Lloyd Spainhower. 




* 



reinforced concrete 



CONCRETE is stronger in compression than in ten-ion. When 
concrete structural members such as floor beams must resist large tensile stresses, 
teei. which is high in tensile strength or resistance to pulling apart, is embedded 
jfi i oncrete in the form of bars or mesh. This supplements the strength of the con- 
crete, funning reinforced concrete structural members capable of sustaining heav \ 
loads. Thus en-Jiieers can design concrete doors and oilier parts of a structure so 
the) will earn tin- anticipated loads with safeh and economy. 

Reinforced concrete was first used about 1850. when Joseph Monier. a French 
gardnnT. built thin* walled concrete tubs, tanks and garden pots with metal rein- 
forcement. Monier was granted his firsi patent on a system of reinforced concrete 

on-t ruction in L857, although not until 1880 was his system put into general use. 
Two other Frenchmen, Joseph Louis Lambot and Francois Coignet, were pio- 
• i- in the development of reinforced concrete construction, Lambot i- n -puled 
to have built a reinforced concrete boat, which he exhibited at the Paris Exposi- 
tion in I >5. In the same year, Coignet announced his principles for reinforced 
acrete const ru< n. suggesting thai 1m ams, arches and pipe could be satisfai 

torih made in this way. 



1 



Reinforced concrete building 
omes ore widely used in struc- 
res thot ore to house large num- 
ber* of people, wh(-fe strength 
ond frresofe' ore oil-important 
This! 4 itory building in New York 
port of on apartment project 
built by the New York Houung 
Authority. 




Section 2 -STRUCTURAL USES OF CONCRETE 



Concrete can be molded into almost 
any shape Of form. Its strength and 
versatility permit the architect and 
engineer to build grace and beauty 
into usually commonplace structures. 
These three 30-ft. wide concrete can- 
opies form a park shelter in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, 




Among the most important earl) rein fun <d < out rete patents was one issued in 
L877 to Thaddeus Hyatt, \merican lawyer and inventor, The theories advanced 

in his patent application were based in pari on laboratory i« --a- I n inforced con- 

rete beams. The principles derived from these beam tests strongl) influenced th 

development of reinforced concrete construction. 

The first important practical applications "I reinforced concrete Foi building 

construction in America were in structures designed on the Pacific Coast l>\ I I 

Ransome during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. He firsl used old wij 

able and hoop iron for reinforcement in small building and the success of his 

earl> efforts led to the use of reinforced con< rete in man\ large structures on th 

West Coast — one of the most notable being tin- Leland Stanford. Jr Museum at 
Palo Alto. Calif., which came through the L906 earthquake with onl\ minor 
tructural damage. 

I he fir^t reinforced concrete bridge in the I nited States was built in Prospa i 
Park, \.\„ in 1871, According to most authorities, the firsl wholly reinforced 
concrete building in this countr) was the W E. Ward house, built in New York in 
1875. It was not until the turn of the twentieth century, however, that this typ<< 
of construction became common. The ftr-t reinforced concrete skys< raper in the 

I nited Stair- was the 16-storv Ingalls office building, constructed in Cincinnati 

in 1902 and 1903. 

Since that time, experience and research have resulted in stead) improvement 
of reinforced concrete design and construction pract . Iuda\. reinforced con- 
Crete is accepted and widel) used not onl\ for building construction but fur a 
variety of purposes ranging from a simple fence post to the largest and most ( om- 

pli< ated engineering projei ts« 



• 



* 




rchitectural concrete 



Architectural concrete is reinforced concrete used for both 

H r 

the ornamentation and the structural parts of a building. However, a building 
with a structural frame of some other material is classed as architectural concrete 
if the enclosing walls and features that determine its architectural appearance 

are exposed concrete. 

Concrete was recognized early as a rugged material of great durability and 
strength. For mam vears. consequently, it was employed almost entirely for struc- 
tural purposes while its beauty potential remained unrecognized and undevel- 
oped. Its emergence during the last three decades as an architectural material has 
i oincided with the appearance of the contemporary or modern style of architec- 
ture. As the architectural styles rendered in concrete and illustrated on these pages 
will affirm, concrete is a versatile medium for expression. 



Factory-produced cast-stone wall panels were used for the Kenmore Apartments in Washington, D.C. 
White precast 4x6-ft. panels were used to give horizontal emphasis to the fagade, while smaller grey 
panels were used between windows. The precast panels served as exterior forms for the cast-in-place 
lightweight concrete walls 





For the Temple of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in Idaho Falls, Idaho, white portland 
cement was used for the architectural concrete to obtain extra whiteness. 



Architectural concrete in the United States was first used extensively on the 
Pacific Coast. Several conditions peculiar to this section were responsible for 
development of the new material. Western builders were anxious to abandon the 
conventional eastern forms, and concrete offered an adaptable material for ex- 
perimentation. Another cogent factor of local importance was the high earth- 
quake resistance of reinforced concrete. From the West Coast, architectural con- 
crete has spread throughout the country. 

An important property of concrete is its workability when first placed, a qual- 
ity that permits its being molded into practically any shape or form an architect 
may conceive. Exterior and interior wall surfaces may vary widely depending on 
the material used for the forms or form linings. 

Concrete's workability is particularly valuable in the execution of ornamental 
details. All elements of the concrete building— ornamental as well as structural — 
may be cast integrally in one construction operation at a substantial saving in 
building cost. Fluting, rustications, incised or relief patterns and other ornamental 
devices are executed easily and economically in concrete. Molds may be re-used 
many times to carry out a motif. 

71 



First 
Used in 
West 



Use of During the next decade an increasingly widespread use of color in architectura 
Color concrete may be expected. A broad range of paints, stains and pigments are avail 



Growing 



able now for adding color to concrete to enhance its attractiveness. Recent devel 
opments in the use of colored aggregates and bond-transfer techniques make 
possible the maximum use of the natural beauty of the aggregates, producing 
architectural concrete in an additional variety of striking finishes. 

Architectural concrete stands today between the satisfying progress of the past 
and the exciting possibilities of the future. Whatever the future of architectural 
design ma\ be. concrete can give it form and substance. 




In the new Medical Center in Little Rock, Ark., floor slabs 
were cantilevered to form functional exterior canopies thai 
provide shade from the summer sun. Designs were cast 
into the canopies' undersides for architectural effect. 









72 







•* 



tilt-up 



The use of tilt-up construction for reinforced concrete struc- 
tures gained increasing favor after World War II by helping the construction 
industry to provide badly needed buildings in the face of labor and material 
shortages. 

Tilt-up is a fast, economical method of building individually designed rein- 
forced concrete structures by casting the walls on a horizontal base and then tilt- 
ing them into position. The tilt-up method is economical because it requires mini- 
mum use of forms and makes efficient use of modern mechanical equipment. 

Simplicity is the keynote of the procedure in constructing tilt-up buildings. 
The foundation wall and footings are placed in the usual manner. The reinforced 
concrete floor slab is then laid and coated or covered to prevent the wall panels 
from bonding to it. 

Next, simple wood or steel edge forms are prepared and placed in position on 
the concrete floor, which is used as a base for casting wall panels in a horizontal 
position. 

Before the wall section is cast reinforcing steel, vapor seal, insulation, door 
and window frames, electric conduits and outlet boxes— as required — are placed 
in position. 

The concrete wall panel is then cast, usually adjacent to its final position. When 
the concrete has hardened, a lifting device is attached to the wall section and the 
completed wall is tilted to a vertical position in a few minutes with power or 
hand-operated equipment. 

The walls are fastened together at the corners or between panels with cast-in- 
place concrete columns. Metal clips, clamps or welded reinforcing rods may also 
be used to fasten precast units together. Any conventional roof system may be 
used. The whole operation is speedy and economical, and has proved to be emi- 
nently satisfactory. 

Tilt-up is especially advantageous for one-story structures but has also been sue- Mass 
cessfully used for multistory buildings. With the use of tilt-up, the project can be Production 



readily laid out for mass production. The larger the project, the greater the pos- 



Projects 



sibility for effecting economies. 



Tilt-up offers a variety of architectural effects and exterior surface treatment-. 
Panel lengths and heights are equally adaptable to standardized and individually 
designed buildings. Tilt-up retains all the desirable features of concrete construc- 
tion, including firesafety, attractiveness of design and low maintenance cost. 



In tilt-up construction,, concrete wall panels or sections are cast in a flat position. After hardening 
°nd curing they are raised to a vertical position by a hoisting rig. Cast-in-place columns are used to 
tie the panels securely together. 



* 



presfressed concrete 






In conventional reinforced concrete (page 68), the high ten- 
sile strength of steel is combined with concrete's great compressive strength to 
form a structural material that is strong in both compression and tension. As 
excellent as this combination of ordinary steel and concrete has proved to be. it 
does not take full advantage of the higher concrete strengths now readily obtained. 
Physically, in many cases, it is impossible to provide enough steel to develop a 
tensile strength equal to the concrete compressive strength. This is overcome b\ 
introducing a compressive force on the concrete by a process called prestressing. 
Prestressing breaks down previous limitations on the spans and loads for 
which a concrete structure can be economically designed. It permits the building 
of concrete bridge, roofs, floors and structural members of longer unsupported 
-pans than e\er before. It enables architects and engineers to design and build 
lighter, shallower concrete structures, where these qualities are needed, without 
sacrificing strength. And it permits the construction of concrete pipe and tanks 
to resist even greater internal pressures. 



Seven prestressed concrete girders were used to provide unobstructed floor space of about 14,000 
sq.ft. in the Greensboro, NX., high school gymnasium. Vertical prestressing cables tie columns and 
girders together. At the time of construction, these were the longest prestressed concrete girders 
used for roof construction in the United States. 




The principle of prestressing is dem- 
onstrated here. A hydraulic jack is 
used to stretch the reinforcing steel 
and place the concrete in the beam 
in compression. 




The basic idea of prestressed concrete is to eliminate or greatly reduce the tensile Tensile 
or tearing-apart stresses to which certain portions of bridges and buildings and Stresses 
the walls of tanks and pipe are subjected. This is done by stretching the reinforc- 
ing steel so as to superimpose compressive stresses in the concrete. 

The strengthening effect of compression is similar to the ' ^jueeze' put on a 
horizontal row of books when they are transferred from one place to another. A 
row of books has a form similar to that of a beam, although the volumes are not 
bound together. When sufficient pressure is applied to the two end books, com* 
pressive stresses are induced throughout the row. The b ks may be lifted and 
carried horizontally, even though the center volumes are unsupported. 

These strengthening compressive stresses are induced in prestressed concrete in Two 

one of two major ways: by the pretensioning or by the po5/tensioning of the steel Methods 

reinforcement. 

In the pretensioning process, the steel is stretched before the concrete is placed 
or has hardened. After the concrete has hardened around the tensioned reinforce- 
ment, the jacks or stretching forces are released. Then, as the steel seeks to regain 
its original length, the tensile stresses are translated into compressive stresses in 
the concrete by means of the bond between the concrete and steel 

In posttensioning. the steel is stretched after the concrete has hardened, and is 
fastened externally by means of anchors or other gripping devices. In this process, 
the steel is tensioned against the concrete so that any "pulp exerted on the rein- 
forcement results in a corresponding compressive "push" against the concrete. 
The greater the tension on the steeL the greater the compression in the concrete. 

Because they can withstand and maintain a large amount of tensile stress, 
high-strength steel wires are nearly always emplo\ed in prestressing concrete- 
but some alloy steel rods may be used also. 



75 



do you know that ■ . . 

During the peak of construction activity on the Grant Park Underground Parking Garage in Chicago, 
3,591 cu.ft. of ready-mixed concrete was delivered and placed per hour— enough to build 224 ft. 
of concrete pavement 24 ft. wide and 8 in. thick? 

Concrete floor slabs, weighing slightly more than 700 tons and measuring 80x195 ft., were cast 
one on top of another and lifted on 36 supporting columns to form the floors of a multistory 
building in San Antonio, Texas? 

Limestone is mined as deep as 1,500 ft. underground and brought to the surface for cement 
manufacture? 

Concrete has an important role in one of Hollywood's most expensive productions? Approximately 
20,000 cuft. of concrete was placed for the parting of the Red Sea sequence of Cecil B. DeMille's 

film, The Ten Commanc/menfs, 



| First Although prestressed concrete is not a new idea, only about 1940 did it become 

Patent recognized and developed as an important and practical type of construction. 
Issued in y^ e £ rst p atent on prestressed concrete was issued in 1888 to R H. Jackson 
J} f e of San Francisco, and in following years several other patents were granted in 

this country. But while some of the first steps w r ere taken in America. I lie initia- 
tive soon went to Europe, where the development of prestressing was taken up by 
i engineers in France. Belgium and Germany. A major hurdle was cleared about 

I 1928 when Eugene Freyssinet, a prominent French engineer, found that compres- 

I sive stresses could best be induced in the concrete by means of high-strength steel 

I wire-. In the last decade and a half, development work abroad has been spurred 

I b\ the necessity for rebuilding— in the face of a scarcity of construction materials 

i —main bridges and structures damaged or destroyed in World War II. It was in 

|l western Europe and in England that prestressed concrete developed into full ma- 

I turitx and became an important type of construction. 

I Its success, increased use and growing application in foreign countries have 

been responsible for a "'rediscover) of the material in the United States, where 
in the past few \ears notable strides forward have been made. Significant among 
these waa the start of construction in late 1949 of the Walnut Lane Bridge in 
Fainuount Park. Philadelphia. This structure, with a 160-ft. center span and two 
74-ft. side -pan-. wa> the fir-t prestressed concrete bridge to be started in this 
country. It was completed early in 195L 

After work was begun on the Walnut Lane Bridge, a -< cond. smaller pre- 
stressed concrete bridge was built and opened to traffir in Madison Countv. Tenn. 

This bridge, official!) dedicated in October 1950. was the first prestressed con- 
crete bridge to be completed in the United States. Since then more than 225.000 
ft. of prestressed concrete bridges has been built in this country. 

Both as an adjunct to reinforced concrete and as a promising construction 
medium, prestressed concrete has many potentialities for the future. It i^ to be 
expected that important new contributions will be added to the already well- 
I established procedures as its use increases in this country. 






76 






-X- 



concrete bridges 



. 



m * 






,.!, W 



. 






II I 



. 






» hi 






J 












m 












I 









\ 









1 


















V ¥ ' 







M 






* I I 



1 
II I 'I 









It I 



I , 



k. 















it 






t mm* 



* 



* 



i| 



* I 



I ♦•" I I ' 



l~t...l 









* 



I * 






Mi 



tt 

















-•iv 




* *;; 



* ♦ *• 











— 







2*1 










Reinforced concrete multispan vehicular causeway (foreground) is IV2 miles long and connects Galves 
ton, Texas, with the mainland. In background is multiple-arch railway bridge of equal length. 






Great 

Concrete 

Bridge 

Decade 









Much smaller but almost as significant was the first reinforced concrete bridge 
built in the United States. Constructed at Golden Gate Park. San Francisco, in 
1889, the modest little arch had a 20-ft. span with a rough-stone finish. 

This country's first large-scale multiple-span concrete bridge was the Con- 
necticut Avenue Bridge, built in Washington, D.C.. just 17 years later. Its overall 
length is 1.341 ft. 

Pioneer among single-span concrete bridges in the United States was Jack's 
Run Bridge, Pittsburgh, Pa., constructed in 1924: the bridge span is 320 ft. 

Completion in 1931 of the George Westinghouse Bridge. East Pittsburgh. Pa.— 
which includes the longest reinforced concrete arch in the United States today, 
a 460-ft. span— marked the start of the greatest decade of concrete bridge construc- 
tion in the nation's history. 

The period 1931 through 1940 saw the completion of at least five major single- 
and multiple-span reinforced concrete bridges, in addition to thousands of smaller 
concrete bridge structures. 

One of the best examples of the rigid-frame type of concrete bridge, the Aliso 
Street Bridge in Los Angeles, was built in 1943. Here the reinforced concrete 
rigid frame has a span of 222 ft. 

A \ear later, one of the first important continuous-girder bridges in the United 
States was constructed to span the Chattahoochee River near Atlanta. Ga. Com- 
pleted in 1944. it has 90-ft. span lengths. Of more recent and unusual design for 
this type is the Niles Canyon (Calif.) Bridge built in 1948. Its single columns 
carry a hollow concrete box girder, which in turn supports a curved bridge deck 
26 ft. wide. The bridge is 1.000 ft. long, with more than half its length on a curve 
of 750-ft. radius. Spans are 81 ft. long. 

78 



Aside from the four major concrete bridge types, there are two concrete 
bridges in the United States that merit special mention. The first is the Lake 
Washington Floating Bridge, in Seattle, Wash., which is, in effect, a stationary 
"raft" floating on the surface of Lake Washington. Its four-lane roadway is sup- 
ported on concrete boats or pontoons. Its length of 1.3 miles makes it one of the 
largest floating structures in the world. The second, located near Philadelphia, is 
the Walnut Lane Bridge, the first prestressed concrete bridge to be put under 
construction in the United States. 

These are only a few of the major or representative-of-type bridges in the 
United States. In addition, there are hundreds of smaller concrete bridges in every 
state of the Union and in every Canadian province. 

Main of the existing bridge structures on the nation's highway system were built 
for the narrow road widths and light traffic volumes and loads of several decades 
ago. Some of these old structures are so inadequate in strength, width or overhead 
clearance as to form bottlenecks in the normal How of commercial traffic. Others 
present actual barriers to the emergency movement of military vehicles and equip- 
ment. The improvement and replacement of these structures, and the elimination 
of dangerous railroad grade crossings and highway intersections are among the 
most serious problems facing road officials. 

Figures compiled by the Bureau of Public Roads in a report for Congress 
show that at the start of 1955 there was a need for the construction or improve- 
ment of 304,600 bridges on all roads and streets, at a cost of $21,600,000,000. 



New 

Bridges 

Needed 



Graceful concrete bridge of center- 
pedestal type spans Alameda Creek 
in Niles Canyon, Calif. 




■K 



railway uses of concrete 









For more than half a century, American railways have used 
concrete in more diversified ways, possibly, than has any other industry. More 
than 160 uses have been counted, ranging from relatively small projects such as 
mile posts to large bridges, long trestles and monumental buildings. As loads 
increase, railroad engineers are using concrete more and more for construction 
and replacement projects to reduce annual maintenance charges. 

Among the essential structures of any railroad are its depots, freighthouses, 
bridges, control towers and motive-power maintenance and fueling facilities. In 
all of these, concrete pla\s a vital role. For example, 65.000 cu.yd. of concrete 
went into the construction of the Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, which 
covers 45 acres. The huge concrete Santa Fe freighthouse in the same city is 815 
ft. long and 60 ft. wide, and can accommodate 64 cars simultaneously. 






Unnoticed 



Many But there are also many extensive railway uses of cement and concrete that remain 
Uses Go virtually unnoticed by the public. To cite several examples, concrete is used under 

water in huge piers and trestles and under ground in long tunnels and culverts. 
Cement grout, a mixture of portland cement, sand and water (see page 106), is 
forced into the ground underneath track to eliminate troublesome water pockets 
and soft spots: it thus provides the traveling public with fast, smooth-riding 
railway transportation. 



Left— These precast concrete signal houses illustrate one way in which railroads are using concrete 
to reduce on-the-site construction and maintenance. Right— The Pennsylvania Railroad's new freight- 
house in Philadelphia was designed in concrete for firesafety and to give long service under severe 
traffic conditions at low maintenance cost. 








••HI 



near 
Project 



In one unusual project, concrete bridge piers are keyed into solid rock as deep Piers 

as 123 ft. below the water level of the Colorado River to allow trains of the Santa Keyed 

Fe Railway to cross a bridge between Arizona and California at a speed of 100 ,nto 
miles an hour in safety and comfort. 

Precast reinforced concrete piles, deck slabs and bents are among the fast- 
growing railway uses of concrete. Louisville and Nashville Railroad trains ap- 
proach a bridge spanning the Ohio River at Henderson, Ky., over a concrete 
trestle almost 2^ miles in length, 20 ft. above ground, and containing 629 spans. 
The deck of this trestle bridge is constructed of more than 1,250 precast rein- 
forced concrete slabs supported on precast concrete piles 24 in. in diameter. Two 
20-ton slabs are placed side by side to form the deck. 

In a typical railway trestle construction project, deck slabs and piles are fre- Units 
quently precast at a yard near the scene of operations and cured there: then lhe\ Precast 
are picked up by a crane, placed on flatcars and transported to a stockpile or 
directly to the site. 

By means of efficient organization and the use of precast concrete units, rail- 
roads have minimized the time required for replacing old trestles and building 
new ones and have lowered both maintenance and replacement costs. Since most 
of the structural units needed for the job are preconstructed, traffic interruption 
is held down; on small jobs there is little or no traffic delay. 

Concrete track support, subballast slabs and cement grouting are other important Concrete 
railroad uses of cement and concrete. All have grown from experimental work Reduces 
carried on by the American Railway Engineering Association (through the Asso- u P kee P 
ciation of American Railroads), by individual railroad companies and by the 
Portland Cement Association— and all have helped to reduce maintenance costs 
and improve riding conditions. 

In Chicago's Union Station, for example, concrete track support increased the 
life of track 40 per cent and cut routine track maintenance 80 per cent over a 17- 
year period. Today 860,000 sq.ft. of concrete track support is used in its yards 
and under train sheds, and good track has been maintained with little trouble 
under conditions that would otherwise have made operation difficult and costl\. 

In 1952, railway companies spent approximately SI. 510 million in mainte- 
nance of way and structures, the tenth consecutive year in which total expenditure 
for maintenance has exceeded the billion mark. Since American railroads mu<t 
maintain more than 248,000 miles of track, the lowering of maintenance and re- 
placement costs is a matter of prime importance. Concrete, because of its low 
annual cost, is playing an important role in this economy program. 

Concrete engine terminals, station platforms, crossing slabs, ore bins, turntable Many 

walls, work pits, retaining walls, river-bank revetments and numerous other con- Other 

crete structures are being constantly and increasingly used by railroads to im- Uses 
prove service and expedite operations. 

81 



•* 






crete shell roofs 












Several types of structures such as gymnasiums, aircraft hang- 
ars and certain industrial and commercial buildings require large amounts of 
clear floor space and high ceilings. To provide this unobstructed area, the roofs 
span long distances without the support of interior columns and without large 
below-ceiling beams or trusses that materially reduce the usable height between 

roof and floor. 

These requirements are successfully met by shell roofs, which can be described 
as thin concrete slabs curved in either one or two directions. The tremendous 
carrying capacity imparted to these slabs by even a slight amount of curvature is 
well attested by many examples in nature, such as the shell of an egg. 

Although the principle of shell action is as old as nature itself, its application 
to reinforced concrete is relatively new. dating back only some 30 years to devel- 
opments started in Germany. In the United States, concrete shell roof construc- 
tion is even newer, and it was not until World War II that it received general 
recognition. 

Principles A concrete shell roof may be either barrel or dome shaped. Both of these two 

°* major types are three-dimensional, and it is this fact plus the strength of the rein- 
Strength f orcec i concr ete that is responsible for the great resistance of shell roofs to exterior 

forces and loads. 

The strength of a concrete shell dome is demonstrated by a table tennis ball, 
which has exceptional strength and load-carrying capacity compared with the thin- 
ness of its shell. Even when the ball is cut in half, a great portion of this strength 
is still maintained in the "domes"' that result. But if the shell area of one of these 
domes were flattened, it would support only a fraction of the load concentration 
it is capable of supporting in its spherical, three-dimensional shape. This is because 
in a dome every portion of the shell where a load may be placed is elastically sup- 
ported by the surrounding portions of the shell, and these surrounding portions 
supply tensile and compressive forces to resist the load. A load concentration 
applied to a flat surface, however, is resisted only by bending forces, with the 
consequence that the induced stresses are proportionately more intense. 

The principle of strength in an arched concrete shell roof can be demonstrated 
with a playing card. If a playing card is held in a flat position by slight clamping 
pressure of the fingers along one edge, it will bend deeply or collapse under the 
weight of a half-dollar placed on it. But if the card is curved upwards into an arch 
and held in this curve by pressure of the fingers, it will support the half-dollar 
and additional coins as well. This can be partly explained by the fact that the 

82 



\ 



. 















The flexibility of design afforded by 
concrete shell roof construction is 
illustrated by (top) the undulating 
3-in, thick barrel-type roof of a ga- 
rage at the Lawton, Okla., National 
Guard Armory; (bottom) the trian- 
gular-shaped dome of the auditorium 
at Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology — one-eighth of a sphere cov- 
ering a half-acre. 




weight is resisted by thrusts acting downward over the curve formed by the shell 
and outward against the fingers maintaining and supporting the curve, 

A reinforced concrete shell roof behaves in like manner. Curved ribs or stif- 
fening members are placed at intervals along the entire length of the shell. These 
stiffening members support and maintain the curved shell and consequently suppl 
the reactions necessary to resist the loads placed on the shell. Because of the stif- 
fening ribs, the shell structure acts lengthwise essentially as a beam. 

Because load stresses are so well distributed, concrete shell roofs are capable of 
safeU spanning long distances without support with a low ratio of dead weight 
to span. Even exceptionally large structures require only a relatively thin shell. 
An excellent example is provided by twin hangars built at the Chicago Midway 
Airport for American Airlines. Each of these hangars has a floor area of 45.000 
sq.ft. covered by a concrete shell roof with a clear span of 257 ft. and a clear ceiling 
height at midspan of 60 ft. Yet the shell of each roof is at most points only 

3 1 2 in. thick. 

The practicality and economy of shell roofs led to their ever-increasing use 
in Europe and South America. Because of this gain in popularih . many architect- 
and engineers in this country are looking with keen interest to developments in 
shell structures, and it is not unlikely that the trend toward this type of construc- 
tion abroad will be more than duplicated here. 

83 









•* 






Concrete masonn is being used for constructing many of the 
homes in today's big home-building market. The outstanding durability of con- 
crete block gives the home-owner maximum protection from such destructive 
forces as storms, termites and fire. In addition, concrete block requires little 
repair or maintenance. There are almost as many variations in concrete houses as 
there are architects who design them, but generally they can be classified under 
two main construction types: concrete masonry or reinforced concrete. 

Concrete Concrete masonry homes are constructed with units made in factories, delivered 

Masonry to tne building site and laid into the walls by masons. Concrete masonry units. 

Homes w j 1 j cn are generally produced with hollow cores, are made of various types of 

aggregates, such as sand and gravel, crushed stone, slag and many other materials 
(see page 98). Some units are heavv and some are light in weight, depending on 
the kind of aggregates used in the concrete mixture. 

Concrete masonry house walls are usually built of 8-in. thick units, although 
sometimes two walls arc built of 4-in. units with an air space between. (For modu- 
lar design, see page 98.) 

Concrete masonry walls lend themseh es readily to almost any tvpe of insulation 
— valuable not onl\ in saving winter fuel but in keeping the home cool in summer 
as well. All of the common K used methods for insulating walls in various sections 

of the country are readilv adaptable to concrete masonry. 

A variety of interesting wall liealments ma\ be produced in concrete masonn . 
Surfaces ma\ be painted in an\ desired color with portland cement paint or other 
suitable paints, or thev mav be left unpainled. Portland cement paint is sold in 
drj powder form and then mixed with water before being applied. It serves nol 
• uilv a^ a decorative finish but also as weatherproofing on exterior walls. Stucco 
niav be applied to achieve whate\er sp< • ial surface texture will best suit the archi- 
tectural st\le of the house. Concrete masonr) units of diflereni sizes nia\ be laid 
together in a wall to form patterns traditional in stone work— for example, random 
ashlar or coursed ashlar. 

1 ausual effects may also be created with special treatment of mortar joints. One 
popular wall treatment can be produced b) smoothing off the vertical joint- Hush 
with the wall and tooling the horizontal joint-: this gives an effect of long hori- 
zontal lines. Concrete masonrv units are also wideh used as backup for brick and 

stoup facings. 



M 



Section 3 - CONCRETE FOR HOUSING 



Among the variations in the construction of reinforced concrete walls, three types 
are most frequently applied to dwellings. One type is a solid wall, 4 to 8 in. thick 
according to special requirements, with lath and plaster or other insulation applied 
to the interior surface. A second type, known as a hollow double or "cavity" wall, 
consists of two 4-in. walls with a 2-in. air space between them. In a third type, 
the interior side is ribbed so that air spaces are formed between the plaster and 
the outside wall. 

There are also a number of different methods of constructing reinforced con- 
crete houses with wall sections precast in a factory and erected at the site. Another 
economical method of building reinforced concrete houses— the tilt-up method 
—is described on page 73. 

Along with improvements in methods of building concrete house walls have come 
labor-saving developments and refinements in constructing concrete subfloors for 
dwellings. Whatever type of concrete house floor is built, it is generally classed as 
a subfloor and is covered with carpet, hardwood strip or parquet flooring, cork or 
rubber tile, linoleum or terrazzo. In some instances, however, concrete floors are 
merely painted or waxed. 

One of the most widely used methods of building these floors is with precast 
reinforced concrete joists. Architects often specify that concrete joists be left ex- 
posed on the underside to produce a beamed ceiling. Although these joists are 
commonly used with a cast-in-place concrete floor, precast concrete floor slabs 
may also be placed on them. 

Another popular type of concrete floor construction combines concrete block 
with cast-in-place concrete slab and joists. The concrete block also serve as forms 
for the joists and the floor. A flat ceiling is produced that can be either plastered 
or painted. This type of floor system is efficient and simple to build and requires 
no special construction methods. 

Solid reinforced concrete slabs 4 to 6 in. thick are also used in residence floor 
construction. The flat undersurface may be painted or plastered. 



Reinforced 

Concrete 

Houses 



Concrete 
Floors 



Three features of durable, firesafe 
construction are shown here: walls 
of concrete masonry, concrete floors 
—here shown supported on precast 
concrete joists — and a firesafe roof 
of asbestos-cement shingles or con- 
crete tile. 





Outdoor living areas are becoming 
increasingly popular throughout the 
nation. A concrete terrace and swim- 
ming pool, plus concrete flagstones, 
add much to the appearance and 
livability of this house; yet they are 
easy to keep clean and inexpensive 
to maintain. 



In sections of the country where basements are less commonly used— the South, 
Southwest and certain areas of the Pacific Coast— slab-on-ground floor construc- 
tion is becoming increasingly popular. A major reason is that it offers protection 
against termites, an important consideration in warm climates. 

An increasing percentage of new houses have concrete subfloors for at least 
the first floor. Roofs of asbestos-cement shingles (see page 111) or concrete tile 
are also popular. 



Footings, 
Foundations 

and 
Basements 



Because of its great strength concrete is ideal for constructing footings, which 
prolong the life of the house by assuring uniform distribution of the weight of the 
house on the soil. Footings for foundation walls should be built on firm soil 
below possible frost penetration. 

A basement constructed of concrete w r alls. concrete footings and a concrete floor 
can be a most useful and attractive part of the home. For houses without a base- 
ment a properly constructed concrete slab-on-ground floor helps to insure comfort 
and complete protection against rot and termites. 

During the last few years, the increasing popularity of the one-story ranch 
house has influenced many home-owners in all sections of the country to build 
without a basement. The ranch house, however, was originally designed for warm, 
arid climates, and home-owners in colder climates are now recognizing the advan- 
tages of a basement, or at least a partial basement. 

Probably the greatest single advantage a basement offers is ample, uncrowded 
storage areas. Space for heating and laundry equipment, for a recreation room 
or work shop, for storage of food, garden equipment and tools is provided eco- 
nomically. In the building of any new house, a certain amount of excavation is 
necessary, and with only a little additional excavation and depth of foundation 
walls, a basement can be provided. Since there is no need for storage and work 
areas to be built above the ground, a house with a basement occupies less of the 

lot and more space remains for lawn, garden, terraces and other adjuncts of 
modern living. 



86 



No discussion of concrete for housing is complete without mention of the many Outdoor 
ways in which concrete can be used for the outdoor improvements that play such Living 
a great part in giving a property charm and personality. 

Some of the more popular concrete improvements around the home are side- 
walks, driveways, play courts (for tennis, badminton and shuffleboard), fireplaces, 
lily ponds, garden walls and benches, bird baths, flagstone walks and swimming 
pools. These concrete improvements for better living can be built economically 
and will give long years of service. 




The versatility of concrete is dem- 
onstrated by its many uses in and 
around the home, some of which are 
shown here. 













For 
Firesafety 






For 

Farm 

Homes 



For 

Sanitation 

and Water 

Supply 



For 
Raising 

Pigs 



•* 



On the farm, the uses of concrete are almost as varied as the 
duties of the farmer. Concrete makes his work easier and at the same time increases 
farm profits— by enabling him to save labor, conserve feed and food products, and 
increase production of farm crops, livestock, and dairy and poultry products. For 
the farm home and other buildings, for drainage and irrigation pipe and canals 
in the field, the farmer finds concrete the answer to his problem. 

In building his home, the center of all farm operations, and his livestock buildings 
for housing dairy and beef cattle, hogs and poultry, the farmer finds the firesafety 
of concrete an invaluable property. 

According to National Fire Protection Association figures for 1953, about $139 
million worth oi propert) is destroyed each year a> a result of fans fires. Farm 
families know onl\ too well how important it is to eliminate combustible materials 
from farm construction, 



For modern farm houses, with their up-to-date room arrangements, styling, utilities 
and other conveniences, concrete is the ideal building material. Exterior w r alls are 
often built with concrete masonry and then painted with portland cement paint. 
Concrete masonr\ interior walls are frequently left exposed and painted in a 
variety of colors. The basement, built with 8- or 12-in. concrete masonry units and 
a concrete floor, frequently serves as a large wash-up area for the modern farm 
home. All of these uses of concrete create an attractive farm home for the modern 
farmer and his familv. 



Vt another application of concrete on the farm is for sanitation and an adequate. 
safe water supply, Concrete casings around wells and a concrete platform over the 
well assure a pure water supply, while a concrete septic-tank sewage-disposal sys- 
tem enables farm families to enjoy the conveniences of modern plumbing. 



"Pigs is pork" 7 to the farmer only when he realizes a profitable return on his invest- 
ment, According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, about 37 per 
cent of the hog crop is lost before hogs can be sold. Careful attention to the essen- 
tials of sanitation probably does more than any one thing to turn this potential 
loss into profit. 

After small pigs have been successfully farrowed, the farmer is confronted \n itfa 



88 



Section 4 - FARM USES OF CONCRETE 



Modern farm structures are highly 
functional and may differ markedly 
in appearance from the conventional 
concept of such buildings. This effi- 
cient Tennessee dairy barn has areas 
for bedding, automatic feeding and 
pipeline milking. Yards, gutters, walk- 
ways and floors are of easy-to-clean 
concrete, and all buildings are of 
concrete masonry. 




the problem of increasing their weight to the 200-lb. market size in six months. 
Modern methods of raising pigs economically and profitably and of controlling 
disease make the use of concrete farrowing houses and concrete-paved feeding 
areas almost mandatory. 



Modern dairy barns, adapted climatically to each section of the country, are 
efficiently arranged to reduce chore time and steps. They are built for ease in 
> leaning— permitting the production of high-quality milk with less effort. Concrete 
is widely used by dairymen to achieve this goal. 

Labor- and time-saving features are incorporated in each of the three most 
generally used types of concrete dairy structures: stall barns, loose-housing barns, 
and milking barns. 

Stall barns may be either one- or two-story buildings. For the one-story build- 
ing, 8-in. concrete masonry units are used for wall construction. For two-story 
barns, since feeds are generally stored overhead, 12-in. units are used for the side 
walls. Exterior walls can be built with either heavy or lightweight units depending 
on the insulation requirements of the area. 

When placed next to a stall barn, auxiliary buildings— the milkhouse for cool- 
ing and storing, the feed room and the silos— save the dairyman time and steps. 
They are usually linked to the feeding and milking areas of the barn by concrete 
walkways and alleys. 



For 
Dairy 

Cattle 



Old farm buildings are given new 
life at moderate cost through re- 
modeling. Here concrete footings and 
foundations and concrete masonry 
walls add strength and durability 
and provide easier maintenance for 
an old barn. 




In a loose-housing dairy arrangement, cows are sheltered and bedded in an 
open barn or shed. The side walls of these buildings are built with 8-in. units on 
an 8xl6-in. concrete footing placed below the frost line. Cattle have free access 
to a concrete-paved yard and feeding area. 

In mild climates, the milking barn is the principal dairy structure. It usually 
includes areas for milking, for handling and cooling milk, and for storing grain. 
Concrete walkways, paved corrals and feed mangers are important outdoor dairy 
improvements for sections with mild climates. 

For One-story concrete masonry buildings— open on one side and coupled with a 
Beef paved yard— make efficient housing for beef cattle production. These buildings, 30 
Cattle tQ 4 q f eet w jj e an d f anv l en gth desired, require little or no maintenance. 

Concrete masonry units in the walls of such structures are usually left unpainted. 

For Concrete feeding floors for hogs and barnyard pavements for cattle are farm 

Feeding improvements that return large dividends. Tests show that cattle confined in deep 

F l 00 _ rS ° n j mud for 30 days lose weight even though they eat the same amount as when fed 

in a mud-free lot. Concrete-paved feeding floors create large savings in feed costs. 

Mud is also a good carrier of disease organisms that take their toll from dair\ 
cattle and hogs. Diseases can be curbed by following a sanitation program and 
paving feeding lots with concrete. 

Concrete saves fertilizers as well as feed. Forty head of hogs on feed for 120 
davs produce the equivalent of 19 sacks of ammonium nitrate, while 250 sacks 
of the same fertilizer would be produced by 40 dairy cattle in a \ ear. Much of this 
is lost on a dirt vard— with consequent loss of money by the farmer. 

When pavement area is being estimated, hogs require 15 sq.ft. of pavement per 
head: dairv cattle. 75-100 sq.ft. per head: and beef cattle. 30-40 sq.ft. per head. 

Concrete-pa\ed \ards are generalh 4 in. thick for all types of livestock. If 
hea\ilv loaded grain trucks or other equipment are driven frequently along the 
edge of the \ard those sections of pavement should be 6 in. thick. 

For the nonslip surface required in a barnyard, a long-handled steel brush or 
stiff fiber brush is stroked across the surface of the fresh concrete. 



Barnyard 
Pavements 



For The production of eggs and poultry meat is a profitable specialized busings— in 
Poultry main rases approaching production-line techniques and efficiency. 

One of the poultr\ farmer's most pressing problems is maintaining high egg 
production during the winter months when egg prices are the highest. To accom- 
plish thi-. the flock must be kept vigorous, healthy and active throughout the 
winter. Concrete masonry has found great favor in construction of warm. dr\ . 
well-lighted and properly ventilated poultry houses. 

Multiple-stor\ poultn houses make possible maximum labor efficiency in 
| modern poultry and egg plants. These efficient poultn "factories."" when of con- 

crete nit tun construction, require little or no maintenance, and concrete interiors 
provide smooth surfaces that are easily cleaned and have no crevices to harbor 

90 



■ 



poultry parasites. Concrete construction also effectively keeps out rats, weasels 
and other rodents. 



milage for winter use— cut, compressed, and preserved by its own fermentation in 
an airtight chamber— increases dairy and stock farm profits. The farmer who 
feeds silage to his dairy herd, beef cattle or sheep gets the full value out of his 
forage crops— the 40 per cent in the stalks and leaves as well as the 60 per cent in 
the ears and grains. 

Concrete stave silos are constructed of hundreds of interfitting units about 10 in, 
wide. 30 in. long and 2 1 /£ in. thick. As the staves are being fitted to form the walls 
of the silo, steel reinforcing rods are tightened to hold firmly against internal 
pressure— like hoops on a barrel. Cast-in-place silos are constructed by placing 
concrete in circular forms, which are raised as construction progresses. The 
concrete walls are usually 6 in. thick and are reinforced. 

Many outdated farm structures, such as general-purpose or horse barns, are re- 
stored to new usefulness as Grade A dairy barns, poultry houses* beef cattle barns 
or utility buildings at a fraction of the cost of constructing new buildings. In the 
repair or reconstruction of such old structures, one or more of the following 
processes is nearly always involved: 

Replacing stone or pier foundations with cast-in-place concrete or concrete block. 
Replacing rotted and sagging walls with new concrete block walls. 
Replacing dirt floors with concrete pavement. 
Re-siding and re-roofing with asbestos-cement products. 

Concrete, concrete masonry and asbestos-cement products are ideal construction 
materials for remodeling. They are economical in first cost and have the long-term 
advantages of durability and low maintenance cost. 



For 
Silos 



For 
Remodeling 



The largest concrete-paved barnyard 
in the world, near Havana, III.,, pays 
for itself in savings of fertilizer and 
feed, and faster weight-gain of the 
livestock. 




4 




Precious water is saved and farm 
labor reduced with concrete-lined 
irrigation ditches such as this one 
in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. 



For Many farmers, fighting to check waste from soil erosion, use concrete structures 
Preventing to control the velocity and flow of runoff water. Two t\pes of construction are 

?°'' commonlv used. One type is the concrete check dam. which retards runoff that 

° n causes land-destroving erosion. The other type is the flume— a concrete-lined 

sloping channel— which diverts water runoff and prevents washing out of soil. 



For 

Drainage 

and 

Irrigation 



Concrete drain pipe 5 in. in diameter is the minimum size recommended for farm 
drainage. These are laid in line- 3 to 4 ft. deep, and from 30 to 300 ft. apart, 
depending on the kind of soil. Strength and absorption are the measures of drain- 
tile quality. Standard concrete drain tile tests at least 1.200 lb. per lin.ft. in strength 
and not over 10 per cent in absorption. Extra-quality tile must test at least 1.6' »<) lb. 
pel lin.ft. and not over 8 per cent in absorption. 

Concrete pipe 10 in. and larger in diameter is used for the conveyance of water 
to manv thousands of acres of land. In some cases these lines are buried 4 to 5 ft. 

* 

below the surface. Hills present no problem because the pipe irrigation systems 
operate under pressure. A concrete pipe s\stem properly installed requires very 
little maintenance. 

In some sections of the countn . the terrain lends itself to the use of open ditch* 
for the conveyance of water to the crops. Concrete-lined canal- reduce absorption 
losses and save water for crop u-e. These canals are generally 12 to 14 in- wide 
at the bottom and 2 to 3 ft. at the top. depending on the quantity of water lo be 
delivered and the slope of the ditch. Concrete linings are 2 1 2 to 3 in, thick. The) 
may be made with forms pulled steadih down the ditch by a tractor, or with 
sectional forms that are manually moved. 



: 



■K 



Sound, sensible programs and policies for the conservation and 
development of America's natural resources are gaining increased attention. In 
the past, the country's abundant water resources have been neither wisely used nor 
adequately developed. Extensive clearing and draining of lands have made rainfall 
runoff more rapid, with a consequent increased intensity of floods, erosion of 
tillable lands and shrinkage of underground storage reservoirs. In many localities 
the gradual lowering of the groundwater level is affecting the domestic and indus- 
trial water supply, and many cities are going great distances to tap some large 
surface supply of water. Other cities are expanding present sources of supply. 
Tulsa, Okla., is an excellent example. In 1924, Tulsa built what was then a record- 
breaking concrete pipeline to bring water to Tulsa's citizens and industry. A 
parallel concrete pipeline— nearly 160.000 ft. of 66- and 72-in. high-pressure pipe 
—was completed in 1951 to double the previous supply and insure Tulsa 67 million 
gal. of water daily. 

While too little water creates serious economic problems, too much water takes 
a vast toll of natural as well as man-made resources. It has been estimated by the 
U.S. Department of Commerce Weather Bureau that floods caused property dam- 
age of nearly $2^ billion in the United States during the five-year period 1951— 
1955, Damage from floods in 1955 alone totaled more than $900 million. Nearly 
every part of this country has its flood history and in many sections permanent 
flood-control structures have become an important part of the landscape. At 
Portsmouth, Ohio— to cite one instance—three miles of concrete walls built to 
keep out a stage of 77 ft. in the Ohio River have repeatedly protected that city 
from floods that caused millions of dollars damage to less adequately protected 
towns and cities in the Ohio Valley. 

Many agencies are constantly w r orking on remedial measures to avoid repeated 
cycles of floods, devastation and rehabilitation. The work of the Department of 
the Army, Corps of Engineers, in the construction of flood-control structures and 
the dredging of rivers and harbors: of the Bureau of Reclamation in the construc- 
tion of huge dams for irrigation, power and conservation; of the Department of 
Agriculture and the Soil Conservation Service in the conservation of land is well 
known, but frequently not fully appreciated. 

Today's flood-control work is the result of years of increasing understanding 
of the relationships between watersheds, soil erosion and floods— gained from 



Agencies 
Work on 
Flood 
Control 



93 



Section 5 - CONCRETE IN CONSERVATION 



experience, research and continuing study. In this connection it is interesting to 
note the work of the Concrete Research Division and Waterways Experiment 
Station, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, at Vicksburg, Miss. Here 
numerous models of l-to-16, l-to-20 and similar scale replicas of areas, rivers and 
structures under study furnish practical information to government agencies and 

the engineering profession. 

The most spectacular flood-control study ever undertaken and the largest hy- 
draulic model in the world is the Mississippi River Basin model near Vicksburg. 
estimated to cost more than 86 million. This huge earth and concrete model is 
designed to further the study of flood control in the entire drainage basin of the 
Mississippi River and its tributaries. The model requires an area of about 200 
acres to reproduce the 1.250.000 square miles of this drainage basin. 

The Bureau of Reclamation maintains at Denver an extensive laboratory for 
use in its conservation and irrigation work. 

Recently Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Agriculture to cooperate 
with local agencies in the development of flood control in the upper river basins. 
The purpose of such developments is to halt the falling water table by re-estab- 
lishing underground water reservoirs: to prevent waste of water so that it can 
be utilized for supplementary irrigation, industrial and recreation use; and to 
prevent damage by water— that is. soil erosion, silting and floods. 

This will supplement but not supplant direct flood-control measures such as 
reservoirs, levees and flood walls that are being constructed on principal water- 
wax s of the nation. 



Shasta Dam in California is one of many that are being used to conserve our precious water supply, 
prevent flood destruction and provide water needed to make arid or drought-stricken land useful again. 




The population of the United States is increasing out of proportion to its acreage Need 
of cultivated lands. In 1915 the harvested crop lands totaled approximately 340 * or 
million acres; in 1950, 345 million acres. The population in 1915 was 100 million; ■ rr, 9 ation 
in 1950, 150,697,000. Food production per acre has been increased by scientific 
farming methods to feed these 50 million more people on only 5 million additional 
acres of harvested crops. But it is doubtful that it will be possible to feed an 
additional 50 million, the anticipated increase in population by 1975, without a 
substantial increase in the acreage of cultivated lands. 

It is estimated that there are approximately 80 million acres of arable land in 
the United States not now being cultivated, of which about 22 million can be 
irrigated. The limiting factor is water, not land. Therefore, it is important to 
conserve every drop of water that can be used for irrigation. 

The construction of such huge dams as Hoover and Grand Coulee is an important 
part of the plan to transform desert land into productive acreage through harness- 
ing water for irrigation and power. Hoover Dam on the Colorado River near 
Boulder City. New, is 726 ft. high (approximately the height of a 50-story build- 
ing) and contains almost 7 million tons of concrete. It has a total power capacity 
of 1,725,000 hp and provides storage capacity for a series of dams downstream 
from which water is drawn for irrigation and domestic use in southern California 
and Arizona. 

Grand Coulee Dam, on the Columbia River in northern Washington, is 550 ft. 
high and 4,300 ft. long at the top. and contains almost 24 million tons of concrete. 
It is the world's most massive dam, containing the world's largest hydroelectric 
plant, rating 2,700.000 hp of electric energy; and the world's largest pumping 
plant, consisting of 12 pumps, each with a capacity of 720,000 gal. per minute. 
Water is lifted 280 ft. from a reservoir behind the Grand Coulee Darn to a 27-mile 
long equalizing reservoir in an ancient channel of the Columbia River that was 
blocked during the glacial period. From here water flows through concrete-lined 
canals, concrete siphons and concrete pipelines to the farm lands. More than 
350.000 acres have already been supplied with water and ultimately this project 
will furnish irrigation water for more than a million acres. 

An adequate water supply is a vital requirement for urban and industrial develop- Water 
ment. However, many of our public water supplies are presently inadequate to Needs 
provide sufficient water for maximum requirements in accordance with good ® 
water-works engineering practice. Thus, a large number of cities and communities 
are spending vast sums to increase their water supply and provide for future needs. 

For example, New York has expended some $440 million to complete the first 
two stages of its Delaware River water supply. It will furnish 540 million gal. 
per day to New York City. This work included the construction of three dams, 
three reservoirs, and 115 miles of concrete-lined tunnels from 10 to 19 1 /o ft. in 
diameter. The third stage, now authorized at an estimated cost of about $400 
million, will increase the water supply to a total of 800 million gal. per day. 

In 1954 Boston completed a 7-mile long, 10-ft. diameter concrete water tunnel 

95 



from the city's Chestnut HilJ Reservoir to the suburb of Medford at an expendi- 
ture of $11.9 million. 

In 1954 a high-pressure concrete pipeline totaling about 50 miles was con- 
structed from the Colorado Ri\er Aqueduct to the San Vincente Reservoir to 
increase San Diego's water supply by 95 cu.ft. per second. This line parallels a 
similar line that was constructed in 1947. 



This concrete siphon, 25 ft. in diameter with walls 2 ft. thick, is capable of carrying 2 V 2 million gal. of 
water per minute for irrigation of arid land in the Columbia Basin Project in the state of Washington. 

^Photograph courtesy of the Bureau of Reclamation. 












This attractive concrete seawall protects property along the Bayshore Drive in Tampa, Fla., from the 
destructive forces of wind and water. 



A growing population, a better standard of living and greater industrial activity 
have caused production of larger quantities of waste materials. A large proportion 
of these wastes is discharged untreated or only partially treated back into the 
streams and lakes of the country. Such pollution renders streams unsuitable as 
sources of water supply, hinders navigation, decreases propert) values and ruins 
recreational areas. 

As the needs and problems have arisen, local and federal organizations have 
established teams of experts to deal with the emergencies. Recently the Water and 
Sewage Industry and Utilities Division of the Business and Defense Services 
Administration made a detailed study and estimate of the sanitation needs for the 
next 10 years. These estimates were based on present deficiencies, needs to offset 
obsolescence and depreciation, and future growth. The estimated construction 
needs totaled $25,330 million, of which some $10,730 million was for water works, 
and $14,600 million for sewage works. 

97 



Sanitary 

Demands 

Increase 



•K 



concrete masonry 






Standard 
Dimensions 



The term "concrete masonry" is applied to block and brick 
building units molded of concrete and laid by masons in a wall. Minimum require- 
ments for these units are set forth in local building codes and Federal Specifica- 
tions, and by the American Society for Testing Materials or other agencies that 

develop specifications. 

Every state in the Union and every province in Canada is represented in the 
total of more than 4,500 active concrete masonry plants, many of which turn out 
more than 10 million masonry units in a year. Each of these larger producers 
manufactures enough concrete masonry units a day to build a dozen moderate- 
sized homes. 

Concrete masonn units are made by mixing portland cement with water and 
suitable fine and coarse aggregates. Aggregates for heavyweight masonry units 
include sand, pebbles, crushed stone and crushed slag: for lightweight units, 
processed clays and shales, natural volcanic aggregates, cinders or processed blast- 
furnace slag are employed. 

Concrete masonry units made with lightweight aggregates have been growing 
steadily in popularity in recent \ears. One important reason for this growth is 
that they are more easih handled on the job. Approximately 50 per cent of all 
concrete masonry units made today in the United States are produced with light- 
weight aggregates. It is estimated that about 19 V2 million cu.yd. of lightweight 
aggregates was used in 1954's block production. 

Concrete masonry units are made in several sizes and shapes, all designed to 

■ 

permit speedv. economical construction. An 8x8xl6-in. unit weighs about 45 lb. 
when made with heav\ weight aggregates, and about 20 to 30 lb. when made with 
lightweight aggregates. 

In 1938, the American Institute of Architects and the Producers' Council, Inc., 
through the American Standards Association, initiated an industrv-wide move- 
ment to establish standard basic dimensions for the manufacture of building 
materials. This is known as "modular coordination. " By coordinating the dimen- 
sions of building materials, costly cutting and fitting at the construction site would 
be minimized and construction costs substantially reduced. Concrete masonry unit 
lend themselves readily to this relatively new system of modular coordination, 
and concrete masonry producers are rapidly converting to the manufacture of 
modular-sized units. 



98 



Section 6 - PRECAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS 




Concrete masonry lends itself to 
homes of any architectural design 
and is widely used in every section 
of the country. 



There are three principal steps in making concrete masonry units: the careful 
proportioning and mixing of portland cement, water and aggregates; molding 
of the units; and curing and drying. 

Concrete units are used for all types of masonry construction including load- 
bearing and non-load-bearing walls: piers; partitions; fire and party walls; backup 
walls for brick, stone and stucco facing materials; fireproofing around steel col- 
umns, stairwells and enclosures; and chimneys. Many plants also make concrete 
masonry sills, lintels and floor filler units. 

Total production of concrete masonry units was more than two billion in 1955. 
In terms of wall volume, concrete masonry represents more than two-thirds 
of all masonry walls built today. The advantages of concrete masonry that have 
led to this remarkable growth have been effectively demonstrated both by labora- 
tory tests and by actual field performance. 



Manufacture 

and 

Uses 



Concrete masonry is being used to 
construct more than two-thirds of 
the volume of all masonry walls 
built today. Block was laid in an 
unusual decorative pattern for walls 
of this Nevada hotel. 







Firesafety 

with 

Concrete 

Masonry 



Sound 
Control 




Made 



All structures, whether hospital, hotel, or bungalow, ha\e one common formidable 
enemy-fire. The firesafe qualities of concrete masonry make it invaluable protec- 
tion for not onl\ property but— of much greater importance— human life. 

Concrete masonn walls have substantial load-carrying ability and firesafety 
before, during and after severe fire exposure. Fire tests made on concrete masonry 
walls b\ Underwriters" Laboratories. Inc.. demonstrated that concrete masonry 
units can be made to meet 2-hour. 3-hour and 4-hour fire-retardant ratings; these 
ratings are dependent on such factors as t\pe of aggregates and thickness of the 
units. The scientifically based ratings of standard building materials by Under- 
writer^' Laboratories are recognized nationally by architects and builders. 

Control of sound is now regarded as a necessity in practically all types of build- 
ings. Tu determine the sound-absorbing qualities of concrete masonry, the Portland 
Cement Association in cooperation with the University of Illinois investigated 
concrete of different compositions and physical properties. 

The test results show that concrete walls, even with dense surface textures, are 
more sound-absorbent than the usual hard plaster. Open-textured concrete masonry 
has a ver\ high acoustical rating. Am material absorbing sound to the extent 
of 15 per cent or more is regarded as a useful acoustical aid. Concrete masonry 
can be made to absorb as much as two-thirds of the sound. Concrete masonry also 
resists the transmission of sound, so that outside noises do not interfere with 
activit) in a room. 




Open-textured concrete masonry units 
were used for the interior walls of 
the Washington Irving School, in 
Waverly, Iowa. The sound-absorbent 
quality of such walls makes them 
especially useful for interior walls 
of theaters, auditoriums, classrooms, 
and wherever good acoustics are 
important. 



•fc 



concrete pipe 



Many thousands of miles of concrete pipelines— ranging in size 
from 4 in. to 32 ft. or more in diameter— serve the people of the United States in 
innumerable ways. In the transportation of water to cities and arid farm lands; 
in the removal of used water and surplus rainfall; in the building of drainage 
structures on railroads and highways; in the reclaiming of lands and in the 
housing of underground telephone, telegraph and electric cables; and in many 
other ways, concrete pipelines are doing a vast job of public service. 

More than 80 million people in this country obtain water from public supplies 
—a total of 8 billion gal. daily. Concrete pressure pipelines help transport this 
water from reservoirs, lakes, rivers and wells. Sometimes these pipelines run over 
mountains and under rivers into our cities. To name but a few, Tulsa, San Diego, 
Denver, Detroit, Salt Lake City, East St. Louis and Victoria, B.C., have recently 
put concrete pressure pipe to work in water supply lines. Specially designed rein- 
forced concrete pressure pipe have been built to withstand water pressures of more 
than 500-ft. head. On a 5-ft. diameter pipe, this would be equivalent to an internal 
pressure of 244 tons per lin.ft. of pipe. 

The first known concrete pipe sewer in the United States was constructed in 1842 Sanitation 
at Mohawk, N.Y. Since that time, the use of concrete pipe has grown steadily. In anc * 
1920, standard specifications for concrete sewer pipe were adopted by the Amer- w 9 
ican Society for Testing Materials. This, together with improvements in manu- 
facturing equipment, insures high quality. 

Today concrete pipe are used either exclusively or in part in many cities through- 
out the United States and Canada for storm, sanitary and combined sewer systems. 
Some of this sewer pipe is large enough for a truck to be driven through. Sewerage 
systems are often many miles in length. For example, Los Angeles has more than 
1,500 miles of concrete pipe— ranging in diameter from 8 in. to 12 ft. Houston, 
Texas, has more than 700 miles. 



Pipe 



The use of concrete pipe for irrigation in this country began in 1888 in California. Concrete 
Today there are almost twice as many miles of concrete irrigation pipelines in that Irrigation 
state as there are miles of primary and secondary roads— and the use of concrete 
pipe is spreading rapidly to other states. 

Each year between 20 and 60 per cent of the irrigation water transmitted in 
unlined channels is lost before it reaches the farm lands. A large portion of this 
loss is due to seepage and evaporation. Concrete irrigation pipelines, because of 
their watertightness, prevent seepage and the loss of land through waterlogging. 

101 




Rugged durability and long life are 
qualities that have made concrete 
sewer pipe widely used. 



Solving 
Drainage 
Problems 



Because concrete pipelines are enclosed conduits, evaporation losses are neg- 
ligible. And because they are usually placed underground, their use does not 
require the setting aside of productive lands for the construction and operation 
of open ditches. 

Concrete pipe are used in many ways for underground and surface drainage. 
As one example, the productivity of many acres of farm land in this country is 
dependent on proper underground drainage. In this vital work concrete drain 

tile play an important part. 

In the larger sizes, concrete pipe are used to solve many different types of drain- 
age problems— among them the disposal of surface storm-water runoff on rural 
highways and cit\ streets and the drainage of manufacturing sites, ball fields and 
parks. Uninterrupted airport service is oftentimes directly dependent on the quick 
and efficient drainage of the airfield. Concrete drainage pipe are doing this job 
in a majority of the principal airports in the United States. About 40 miles of 
concrete pipe was used to insure adequate drainage of New York International 

Airport (Tdlewild). 

Tor more than 40 years reinforced concrete pipe have been specified for build- 
ing culverts and other drainage structures b\ the engineers of the principal rail- 
roads of the United States and Canada. Engineers also make wide use of rein- 
forced concrete pipe in drainage structures for all types of highways. 

Reinforced concrete pipe are giving excellent service today under fills ranging 
from 2 to 150 ft. These concrete pipe culverts, with a life expectancy of many 
decades, minimize maintenance costs. 

Concrete culvert pipe serve equally well under deep or shallow fills because— 
properh designed, constructed and installed— they have ample strength to with- 
stand heavy loads and to absorb severe impact. In large sizes and multiple lines, 
pipe are being increasingly used to replace wornout small bridges and low trestles. 
The} an be quickh and easily installed and have the structural strength to permit 
their being jacked into place. Jacking is the process of forcing pipe through 
embankments or fills where open cuts are not desirable. The first section to be 
jacked into place usually has a cutting edge. The excavated material is then 
removed through the pipe. Other lengths of concrete culvert pipe are added as 
the e\ca\ation progresses. 

102 



More than 350 plants manufactured more than 13 million tons of concrete pipe in 
1955, an increase of more than 7 million tons since 1947. according to figure- 
estimated by the American Concrete Pipe Association. Concrete pipe can be de- 
signed for practically any combination of engineering requirements and local or 
climatic conditions. 
Two example* will illustrate the almost unlimited possibilities of tonerete pipi 

The Alameda Estuan Tunnel between Oakland and Uameda, Calif., is believed 

to contain the largest concrete pipe in existence. Each section ol pipe is 12 fi in 
diameter and 203 ft. long. Sections were Boated into the estuary, sunk to the bot- 
tom md then assembled b) divers. The concrete pipe section of this tunnel me ts 
urea almost a half mile in total length, and would Im* large enough to permit some 
single-engine training planes to IK through ii ans< tihed. 

In another instance, a pedestrian underpass ol 8-ft. reinforced concrete pip 
was eonstrueied under the four mam tracks of the Delaware, Lackav uina and 
Western Railway in Elmira, N.Y., i" provide a safe crossing for children r lT, 

pipe was jacked under the tracks without interruption of traffic, A 5-ft wid 

concrete walk was constructed in the bottom of the pipelim which has an over- 
head clearance of more than 7 ft. 

Man) other examples could be cited of the use of coin rete pipe I ui 

ground installations of water and ^.i- main- and telep tie. lelegi aph .md elect] ' 
vv ires and eahles. 



Some 

Dramatic 

Uses 



Production of materials for nuclear 
weapons requires enormous quanti- 
ties of water Forty eight miles of con- 
crete pipe carry water from the 
Savannah River to the South Carolina 
atomic energy project. 











V 



•* 






st structural members 






The scope of the various uses of precast concrete structural mem- 
bers is broadening rapidly and today covers nearly every field of construction. A 
partial list would include piles and decks for railway and highway bridges, floor 
and roof slabs, wall panels, joists, beams, girders and rigid frames. 

Precast concrete structural members can be made at a central precasting plant 
and then shipped to the building site where they are put in place, or they can 
be cast at the building site. 



Railway An important feature of the precasting of railwa\ and highway structural members 



and 

Highway 

Uses 



is that it greatly reduces the amount of traffic delay and rerouting necessary at 
the construction site. The replacement of a 50-year-old railroad bridge in New 
Jersey provides an example of how precasting can speed up this type of construc- 
tion. The bridge consisted of 8 girders carrying 4 mainline tracks over which 
nearly 100 passenger trains passed daily. The spans under each of the 4 tracks 
were replaced on successive days with precast reinforced concrete deck slabs. 
While the building of forms and casting and curing of the slabs took slightly less 
than two months, each of the main lines was out of service an average of onl\ 
6% hours from start to finish of the replacement operation. The average on-the- 
site construction time for setting the deck slabs was 36 minutes per track. 

Similar techniques have been used in several cities and states in the reconstruc- 
tion or replacement of street and highway bridges. In some instances, small bridges 
have been precast as complete structures. More common is the use of precast 



Left— Precast concrete walls and structural members lend 
themselves to a wide variety of architectural design. They 
have found increasing favor for construction of firesafe 
schools, hospitals, churches and public buildings of many 
types. Shown here is St. George Church and Rectory in 
Seattle, Wash., which combines architectural concrete walls 
with precast bents, precast concrete purlins and precast 
concrete roof slabs. Right— Arches, which were precast 
in two sections, are being erected. 





Precast concrete sandwich wall panels / con- 
structed with a layer of insulation between 
outer layers of concrete, permit rapid con- 
struction and create pleasing interior and 
exterior wall surfaces. Here a panel is being 
lifted into position for anchoring to the 
building frame. 




girders, beams, deck panels and curbs used either in combination with each other 
or with cast-in-place concrete. 

Precast concrete piles — some of ihem longer than the height of a LO-story build- 
up—have been used for many years in the construction of trestle bridges (see 
page 81) and other aboveground structures. Nearlx 70 miles of pre< ast con. rete 
piles were used by one railroad in the construction of a single large pier near 
Norfolk. Va. The piles support a concrete deck 390 ft. wide and 1 100 ft. long, an 
over-water area of more than 10 acres. 

Other uses of precast concrete by railways include slabs for track support and 
planks and slabs for construction of grade crossings. 

Of the variety of precast concrete structural members used in house and building 
construction, perhaps the best known is the precast concrete joist. These light* 
weight reinforced concrete beams are made in several lengths and thicknesses 
and are easilx set into place to support either conventional cast-in-place floor 
and roof slabs, or precast concrete panels or decking, of which there are se ral 
tx pes. Also popular are precast concrete steps, which are produced hx man\ con- 
crete products manufacturers. 

It is possible to construct virtually an entire building with precast com rete 
structural members. An example is a school constructed in Bigpine, Calif. After 
the concrete floor slab had been placed, it was used as a casting table to precast 
wall panels, roof slabs and arches, which were lifted into place with crazies. Panels 
were tied together by cast-in-place columns to provide an earthquake-resistani. 
firesafe building. 



For 

Houses 

and 

Buildings 



]< 






•* 



Portland cement grouting 



Portland cement grout is a fluid mixture of portland cement 
and water, to which fine sand is sometimes added. It has a variety of purposes 
and is applied in two general ways: by air or hydraulic pressure in pressure- 
grouting, and bv gravity for the construction of certain types of pavement and 
subballast slabs under railroad track. 

In pressure-grouting, the grout is forced under pressure into oil-well casing- 
i see page 109 I . into the subgrade under track or foundations, and into open joints 
of old masonry. 

In the gravity method, grout is poured and spread over well-compacted aggre- 
gate or track ballast, into which it flows until all the voids between the particles 
are filled. When the grout hardens, the material is bound into a strong mass. 

Railway Pressure-grouting is used by the railways in the stabilization of track subgrade. 

Pressure- fil[ s an( J embankments. Track maintenance has long been one of the largest items 

Grouting Q £ eX p ense m railroad operation. Through the use of cement grout, railroads 

have effected savings of nianv thousands of dollars in roadbed maintenance, 
eliminated slow orders and insured more smoothly riding track. 

The grout is forced into the track subgrade. displacing air. water or water- 
saturated material. When the grout hardens, the subgrade is stabilized. If the 
grout reaches compacted soil that it cannot penetrate, it seals off the mass and 
protects it from infiltrating water. 

Large In nearh ever) instance where pressure-grouting has been used by railroads. 
Savings |} ie entire cost has been returned in savings in maintenance, often in a few months. 

In one instance maintenance on a section of track cost a railroad company S100 
a month, a figure that was reduced to So a month through the use of pressure- 
grouting. In another case the same railroad paid for the cost of grouting two 
sections of track b\ reduced maintenance expense in 1.3 months. In its first year 
of grouting, this railroad grouted 13 sections of track, saving $2,343 in main- 
tenance while spending only SI. 029.27 to do the job. 

In Indiana, a New York Central Railroad fill across a swamp required main- 
tenance on the average of one day per week until pressure-grouting was employed 
to stabilize the marshy subgrade. Maintenance costs on this stretch of track were 
reduced approximately 95 per cent, and it has been necessary to "resurface* - the 
track only once in five years. 



106 



Section 7 - SPECIAL USES OF CEMENT 







»v 


















Drawing illustrates pressure-grouting of railway-track subgrade. Cement grout is forced into the 
subgrade where it displaces air, water and water-saturated material. When the grout hardens, the 
subgrade is stabilized. 



Fifty-five railroads, representing more than half of America's track mileage, 
today employ pressure-grouting. 



The ratio of portland cement, water and sand and the amount of pressure used 
in pressure-grouting by railroads vary with the condition of the subgrade. but 
ihe procedure is basically the same. Injection points through which liquid grout 
will later be forced into the subgrade are first driven alongside the track, and 
mixing, distribution and pressure equipment is set up. When a trial consistency 
of grout has been made, grout lines are connected to the injection points, and the 
grout is forced under pressure through the lines until it is sufficient!) distributed 
through the subgrade. The pressure required averages about 60 psi (pounds per 
square inch) and is seldom more than 100 psi. 

Of major importance is the fact that pressure-grouting operations do not in- 
terfere with normal railroad traffic. Trained gangs can treat several hundred linear 
feet per day, using the same injection points over and over, while regular rail 
traffic continues without interruption. 

107 



Procedure 
Used in 
Grouting 



Restoring Pressure-grouting is also employed to restore old stone masonry where mortar 
Old Stone } ia . deteriorated or internal cavities have formed. These masonry structures an 
Masonry Q j tWu t ^p es: those with earth on one side, such as retaining walls or abutments: 

and those not backed by earth, such as piers and arches. 

Usually water is first pumped into the masonry through grouting holes to free 
channels through which the grout ma\ pass. In restoring masonry with earth on 
one side, holes are drilled through the wall so that a blanket of grout is formed at 
the hack. Where the objective is to solidify the interior, the holes are drilled to 
within a short distance of the opposite face. Large retaining walls, arches, bridge 
piers and abutments are sometimes grouted through holes thai are drilled from 
top to foundation. 

The M-aling and pointing of joints is usuall) deferred until the grouting has 
been completed, in order that vents will be provided for the air and water dis- 
plai ed b\ the grout 

Grouting I h are two major purposes in grouting dam foundations: to reduce leakage 

Dam j JN sealing joints and to consolidate the rock (<> assure a lirm. uniform base foi 

Foundations .■ , 

ll stl i< turc. 

I Mjalk grout is injected into the foundation rock 01 the dam to form al or 

i ti 1 1 ; i Jong the upstream fa< <-. This curtain of groul it made as neai l\ watertight 

as possible, BO that then is no seepage through the base of the structure. It also 
, . - in irdiu •• uplift prrsMin on I he dam In some instances the entire thick m 

ol th< foundation supporting the dam is grouted. This is done to assm ■ that then i 
no vari in il> ippori afforded hv the grouted curtain on the upstream fa< • 

rid (In remaindei of the foundation ind that the load stress of t lie dam is proper!) 

di-h ibuted "\ ei ihr « til ir* fouiidat ton. 

\ hutments on eithei ie of the dam structure and espe( tail) the areas around 
tunnels and intake are often ; iuted to close seams and i \;i< ks in the rock. 



Gravity- 
Grouting 



Mm f»ra\ it \ method of «Moutinf: employed moat widely b\ rai!v\a\- i- u I to 
i tin ballast underneath track into a slab thai spreads tin load ovei a wider 

pr< >sion id washouts of einbankmenl mci fills, to paV( oidu^liial 

\ ards, foi irai iou* old. i pui poM-s, 

Grouting Iraek h i requires littl* specialized equipment, (,rout [n poured 

i « ballast so thai \\ complei K blU all spaces Ixi^m, thi rock, I 

i* hi a d for I oi the j and the ballast i^ tamped and the pioi 
h wed tarden. 

I \n gri I) method of grouting if u I to construct pavemenb- of certain 

t\|»es. I he pro*, dure if* much 1 1m same a- that followed in ; 'Ulmj.' track ballast, 
epl that tht w u s prepared and forms an -• i n conventional con rete 

-trurlion. < irse a; <«f part* th J in. in si/. spr< 

and sprinkled with water; the surfa<< is che< t I with a straight* < befon groul 
• iipph< d I Im i 1 1 if ■ k t ■ - s* ol the Mp** f^ati la v . i d< p nds on l lie loads the pavi menl 

i-» ml drd I 









* 



oil-well cementing 



Oil is found in certain veins of porous rock, shale or reservoir 
sands usually located several thousand feet below the earth's surface- In its ex- 
traction, casing through which the oil flows must oftentimes be extended down- 
ward as far as two miles and more into the earth, passing through formations 
that may vary from oozing mud and quicksand to underground streams, shifting 
gravel and exceedingly hard rock. 

It is extremely important that the casing be protected against breakage, col- 
lapse or corrosion. And since the value of a well is determined b\ both the quan- 
tity and quality of oil produced, it is also important that the oil source be pro- 
tected against contamination. Portland cement grout, a mixture of purtland cement 
and water, is extensively used today for both of these purposes, and in several 
other ways in petroleum production. 

In the cementing of oil wells, the space between the drill hole and casing is firsl 
cleared. This is done by raising the casing a short distance from the bottom of 
the hole and injecting mud or fluid down into it under high pressure. The pres 
sure forces the mud or fluid from the bottom or open end of the casing, ami 
upward between its outer wall and the drill hole. A stiff portland cement groul is 
then injected under pressure, which forces out the mudd) fluid and replaces it 
with the grout. As the grout hardens, a protective wall is formed that holds the 
casing rigid and greatly reduces the danger of its collapse from internal or ex- 
ternal pressures. It also seals off corrosive fluids and minimizes water seepage 
into lower oil-bearing strata. 

Pressure-grouting is employed for several other purposes in oil wells. It is fre- 
quently used to seal off the bottom of wells where groundwater seepage from below 
is a problem, and also to plug up portions of a hole when upper strata are found 
to be more productive or when the hole has deviated so far from the vertical a- 
to make reboring necessary. 



do you know that . . . 



For the $30 million Folsom Dam near Sacramento, Calif., the project contractors built what is 
probably the world's largest cooling plant of its type, a $75 thousand refrigeration unit adjacent 
to the batching plant? The plant, producing 30,000 lb. of flake ice an hour on a continuous basis, 
was used during mixing to cool the concrete for the dam. Prior to the mixing, aggregates were 
fanned to lower their temperature. 



109 



•fc 





bestos-cement products 



Two 
Processes 



Firesafe 
Siding 

Shingles 



Asbestos-cement building products stem from a discovery by 

an Austrian, Ludvvig Hatschek, who in 1899 developed a process for combining 
asbestos fibers with portland cement to produce a construction material of high 
strength and durability, even in relatively thin slabs. This led to the manufacture 
of the first asbestos-cement product, roofing shingles, in 1905 at Ambler, Pa. 
Asbestos-cement products are now made by more than a dozen companies with 
plants in various sections of the country. Improved manufacturing processes and 
the introduction of new products such as shingles, wallboard and siding in attrac- 
tive colors and textures have widened the demand and caused production to in- 
crease rapidly. The most recent government figures show that in 1953 the value 
of production of asbestos-cement shingles, siding, flat and corrugated sheets and 
wallboard was $91,212.000— an increase of more than $34 million over produc- 
tion just 7 years earlier,* 

Two processes are employed in the manufacture of asbestos-cement products: 
6 *wet" and "dry/* The process used depends on the manufacturer and the partic- 
ular product he makes. All asbestos-cement products are composed of asbestos 
fibers, portland cement and water, about 75 per cent of the content by weight 
being portland cement. 

In the wet process a pulp\ mixture of cement, water and asbestos is formed 
into sheets that are compressed to remove excess water: after being cut into re- 
quired shapes and widths. the\ are subjected to special curing processes. 

In the dr\ process, the portland cement and asbestos fibers are mixed dry and 
deposited in a uniform laser on a conveyor belt. Water is sprinkled on the la>er, 

ami surfacing aggregates (slate, quartz. J are sifted onto it when desired. This 
layer is compressed into a mat and passed through a high-pressure roll and a rut- 
roll. The sheets or shingles then receive their final forming under a hydraulic 
press, and are cured. 

Siding shingles are the largest item of production in the asbestos-cement building- 
products industry. During recent years manufacturers have introduced these shin 
gles in a wide range of harmonious colors including browns, greens, ivories, and 
greys in pastels and mellow tones. Some shingles have been striated, which gives 
them a two-tone appearance. 

Asbestos-cement shingles are widely used for siding in the building of new 



•Annual Survey of Manufacture rs. 1 .S. Bureau of Census 1954, 



11 



homes, either alone or in combination with other construction materials, and for 
remodeling and repair of existing wood-frame houses. They are firesafe and will 
withstand severe climatic conditions. 



Asbestos-cement board has a variety of uses, both for exterior and interior con- Variety 
struction. Suitable wherever a smooth, hard, impermeable surface is desired, it of Uses 
is used for roof sheathing, for lining walls and ceilings, and for construction par- or 
titions. The development of flexible, colored, marbleized and grain-textured boards 
has resulted in its use for interior decorative effects. Its usual color is a soft grey. 
It is quickly applied to building frames without the use of special tools. The sheets 
are usually 4x8 ft. and are available in varying thicknesses. 



Asbestos-cement roofing shingles are manufactured in various shapes and colors. 
One of the newer styles, known as "ranch design/' is especially intended for the 
modern one-story house. Another type, called "strip" or "multiple unit," provides 
the coverage of from three to five conventional shingles in a single unit. Asbestos- 
i ement shingles are also made in American method, hexagonal and Dutch lap 
styles to harmonize with the architectural style of any house. 



Roofing 
Shingles 



Many old wood-frame homes have 
been modernized and made more 
firesafe through use of asbestos* 
cement siding, roof shingles and other 
building products, as shown in this 
before-and-after view of an 80-year- 
old farm home in Illinois. 




Portland cement association member companies 



Aetna Portland Cement Co. 

Allentown Portland Cement Co. 

Alpha Portland Cement Co. 

Arizona Portland Cement Co. 

Ash Grove Lime & Portland Cement Co. 

Bessemer Limestone & Cement Co. 

British Columbia Cement Co., Lid. 

California Portland Cement Co. 

Canada Cement Co., Ltd. 

Consolidated Cement Corp* 

Kansas Division 
Michigan Division 

Coplay Cement Manufacturing Co. 

Cumberland Portland Cement Co. 

Dewey Portland Cement Co. 

Diamond Portland Cement Co. 

Dragon Cement Co., Inc. 

General Portland Cement Co, 

Florida Division 
Signal Mountain Division 
Trinity Division 
Giant Portland Cement Co. 
Glens F*lls Portland Cement Co. 

Green Ban Cement Division, 

Pn isburgh Coke and Chemical Co. 

Hawkeye-Marql ltte Cement Co. 

i 1 1 in i les Cement Corp. 

Hermitage Portland Cement Co. 

Huron Portland Cement Co. 

Ideal Cement Co. Divisions 

Alabama Division 

Arkansas I)u ision 
C olorado Di vi si on 
Houston Division 
L o u i s i a n a D i t d si on 
Montana Division 

A ebraska Division 

Oklu h am a Di vision 
Spokane Dii ision 
Utah Division 

Inland Cement Co., Ltd. 

Keysiom Portland Cemeni Co. 

Kosmos Portland Cement Co. 

Lehigh Portland Cemem Co. 

Lone Star Cemsni Corp. 

Longhobn Portland Cement Co. 

Loi i- 1 * ILLE Cement Co. 

Manitowoc Portland Cemeni I o. 

M tRQi Li ie Cement Manufacturing Co. 

Meih sa Portland Cement Co. 
Missouri Portland Cement Co. 

Monarch Cement Co. 

Monolith Portland Cement Co, 

Monolith Portland Midwest Co. 

National ( i. ikm Co. 
National Portland Cemeni Co. 

Nazareth Cement Co. 

North American Cemem Corp. 

Northwestern Portland Cement Co. 

Northwestern Si ith Portland Cement Co. 

Olymph. Portland Cemeni Co. Lid, 

Peeki j ss Cemem Corp. 
Pen n Dixie Cemeni Corp. 
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. 

C / u m b i a C t m e H I D 1 1 1 S ion 

Riverside Cement Co. 

St. Lawrence Cement Co. 

St. Mary's Cement Co., Ltd. 

San Antonio Portland Cement Co. 

Soi thsrn States Portland Cement Co. 

Sot ihwestlrn Portland Cement Co, 

Standard Lime & Cement C 
Standard Portland Cement Division, 

Diamond Alkali Co. 

Superior-Marquette Cement Co. 

Superior Portland Cement, Inc. 

I nil ers al Atlas Cement I 

Volunteer Portland Cement Co. 

Whitehall Cement Mam i a < tubing Co. 

Wyandotte Chemicals Corp. 



P.O. Box 392, Bay City, Mich. 

Seventh St. at Thru way, Allentown, Pa. 

15 South Third St., Eastern, Pa. 

Rillito, Ariz. 

101 West 11th St., Kansas City 6, Mo. 

1100 Wick Bldg., Youngstown 3, Ohio 

500 Fort St., Victoria, B.C., Canada 

612 South Flower St., Los Angeles 17, Calif. 

P.O. Box 290, Station B, Montreal, Que., Canada 

111 West Monroe St., Chicago 3, 111. 

6I8Y2 Madison St., Fredonia, Kan. 

1003 National Bank Bldg., Jackson, Mich. 

Coplay, Pa. 

Chattanooga Bank Bldg., Chattanooga 2, Tenn. 

424 Nichols Road, Kansas City 2, Mo. 

Middle Branch, Ohio 

150 Broadway, New York 38, N.Y. 

Ill West Monroe St., Chicago 3, 111. 

305 Morgan St., Tampa 2, Fla. 

531 Volunteer Bldg., Chattanooga 2, Tenn. 

1700 Republic National Bank Bldg., Dallas 2, Texas 

117 South 17th St., Philadelphia 3, Pa. 

Glens Falls, N.Y. 

P.O. Box 1645, Pittsburgh 30, Pa. 

802 Hubbell Bldg., Des Moines 9, Iowa 

1530 Chestnut St., Philadelphia 2, Pa. 

American Trust Bldg., Nashville 3, Tenn. 

13th Floor. Ford Bldg., Detroit 26, Mi- h. 

Denver National Bldg., Denver 2. Colo. 

256 North Joachim St., Mobile, Ala. 

611 Wallace Bldg., Little Rock, Ark. 

Denver National Bldg., Denver 2, Colo. 

575 San Jacinto Bldg., Houston 2, Texas 

406 International Trade Mart, \<w Orleans 12, La. 

507 Midland National Bank Bldg., Billings, Mont. 

680 Insurance Bldg,, Omaha 2, Neb. 

1018 Cravens Bldg., Oklahoma City 2, Okla. 

724 Old National Bank Bldg., Spokane 1, Wash. 

554 South Third West, Salt Lake City, Utah 

P.O. Box 555, Edmonton, Aha.. Canada 

1 t()0 South Penn Square, Philadelphia 2, Pa. 

1529 Starks Bldg., Louisville 2, Ky. 

Young Bldg., Allentown. Pa. 

100 Park Ave., New York 17, N.Y. 

1200 Transit Tower, San Antonio 5, Texas 

501 South Second St., Louisville 2, Ky. 
Manitowod Wis. 

20 North Wacker Drive. Chicago 6, 111. 

1000 Midland Bldg., Cleveland 15, Ohio 
3615 Olive St., St. Louis 8, Mo. 
Humholdt, Kan. 

643 South Olive St., Los Angeles 11, Calif. 
643 South Olive St., Los Angeles 14, Calif. 

21 14 Highland Ave., South, Birmingham 5, Ala. 
123 South Broad St., Philadelphia 9, Pa. 
Nazareth, Pa. 

41 Ea^t 42nd St., New York 17, N.Y. 
Northern Life Tower, Seattle 1, V -|i. 

Mason City, Iowa 

1425 Dexter-HortoD Bldg., Seattle 4, Wa*h. 

1144 Free Press Bldg., Detroit 26, Mich. 

60 Ea^t 42nd St., New York 17, M. 

Zanesville, Ohio 

621 South Hope St.. Los Angeles 17, Calif. 

P.O. Box 1156, Quebec, Que., Canada 

2221 Yonge St., Toronto 7. Ont.. Canada 

P.O. Bos 4158. Station A, San Antonio 7, Texas 

1724 Fullon National Bank Bldg*, Atlanta, Ga. 

1031 WiMiirc Blvd.. Lob Angeles 17. Calif. 

2000 First Federal Bank Bid*, Baltimore 3, \1d. 

105 Union Commerce Bldg. Annex. Cleveland 11. Ohio 
50 West Broad St.. Columbuc 15, Ohio 

1003 Seacard Bldg. Seattle 1, Wash. 
100 Park Ave, New York 17, N.Y. 
P.O. Box 1190. KnoxvilK T.-tih. 
123 South Broad St., Philadelphia 9, Pa. 
Wvandotte, Mirb. 



Printed in I .S.A. 



M 1 09 



o 


O 


> 


> 


CD 


Q. 


(D 


t/>" 


"D 




(* 


^— * 


■1 


n 


Q 


■•■ 




O 


O 


33 


«■■■*■ 




o 


<& 


o 


«/» 



n 
> 

3 

3 
cr 



Q 



O 

o 










'nst 



urai 



*>»h 




""''mni* 



% 



(firiff 











w£